1,008 research outputs found

    Factorial equivalence of the Spanish and Portuguese versions of a questionnaire of academic expectations

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    Este estudio presenta los resultados de una investigación sobre expectativas académicas de estudiantes universitarios de primer año de Enseñanza Superior (ES) pertenecientes al norte de Portugal y noroeste de España. Su objetivo es replicar las propiedades psicométricas del instrumento utilizado obtenidas con una versión anterior del mismo. La muestra está integrada por 1.268 estudiantes de primer año de ES con edades comprendidas entre los 17 y 52 años (Mdn = 18, siendo de más de 23 años el 7.4%). Proceden de la región noroeste de España 413 estudiantes (Galicia, Universidad de Vigo) y 855 de la región norte de Portugal (Minho, Universidade do Minho). El 58.1% del total de la muestra son mujeres. Por ámbito de estudio, el 58.4% cursa titulaciones del ámbito científico-tecnológico y los demás del ámbito jurídico-social. Se aplicó el Cuestionario de Percepciones Académicas-Expectativas (CPA-E), estructurado en siete dimensiones: Formación para el empleo/carrera, Desarrollo personal y social, Movilidad estudiantil, Implicación político/ciudadana, Presión social, Calidad de formación e Interacción social. La invarianza del modelo factorial oblicuo del CPA-E fue testada con el LISREL 8.80 mediante el método bivariado latente normal y la estimación de máxima verosimilitud, con la corrección de Satorra y Bentler (1994). Todos los ítems representaron bien a sus respectivos factores y los factores mostraron una buena validez y fiabilidad para los países y el género. Se obtuvo, por tanto, invarianza factorial del modelo para los países y el género. Se asume una versión final del cuestionario común para España y Portugal, así como para mujeres y hombres.We present the results of a study conducted with first-year students from the Euro- region of Galicia-North Portugal, with the aim of replicating the psychometric properties of the instrument as obtained from a prior version. Participants included 1268 first-year students with ages ranging from 17 to 52 years (Mdn = 18; 7.4% with ages above 23 years). Four-hundred and thirteen students are from the North Spanish region (Galicia, University of Minho) and 855 are from the North Portuguese region (Minho, University of Minho), and 58.1% of the students are women. Students are enrolled in scientific-technological courses (58.4%) and juridical-social studies. We administered the Academic Perceptions Questionnaire- Expectations (APQ-E), which is structured in seven dimensions: Training for career development, Personal and social development, Student mobility, Political engagement and citizenship, Social pressure, Training quality, and Social interaction. The invariance of the factorial model of the APQ-E was tested with LISREL 8.80, based on a bivariate latent model and maximum likelihood estimation, with Satorra and Bentler correction (1994). All items contributed to the representation of the factors, and the factors showed good validity and reliability for country and gender. Therefore, we obtained factorial invariance of the measurement model for country and gender. We present the final version of the common questionnaire for Portugal and Spain, and for women and men

    Consistent patterns of common species across tropical tree communities

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    International audienceAbstract Trees structure the Earth’s most biodiverse ecosystem, tropical forests. The vast number of tree species presents a formidable challenge to understanding these forests, including their response to environmental change, as very little is known about most tropical tree species. A focus on the common species may circumvent this challenge. Here we investigate abundance patterns of common tree species using inventory data on 1,003,805 trees with trunk diameters of at least 10 cm across 1,568 locations 1–6 in closed-canopy, structurally intact old-growth tropical forests in Africa, Amazonia and Southeast Asia. We estimate that 2.2%, 2.2% and 2.3% of species comprise 50% of the tropical trees in these regions, respectively. Extrapolating across all closed-canopy tropical forests, we estimate that just 1,053 species comprise half of Earth’s 800 billion tropical trees with trunk diameters of at least 10 cm. Despite differing biogeographic, climatic and anthropogenic histories 7 , we find notably consistent patterns of common species and species abundance distributions across the continents. This suggests that fundamental mechanisms of tree community assembly may apply to all tropical forests. Resampling analyses show that the most common species are likely to belong to a manageable list of known species, enabling targeted efforts to understand their ecology. Although they do not detract from the importance of rare species, our results open new opportunities to understand the world’s most diverse forests, including modelling their response to environmental change, by focusing on the common species that constitute the majority of their trees

    Gender differences in first-year college students’ academic expectations

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    Based on a multidimensional definition of academic expectations (AEs), the authors examine students’ AE component scores across countries and genders. Two samples (343 Portuguese and 358 Spanish students) completed the Academic Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ) six months after enrolling in their universities. Factorial invariance was ensured across countries and genders, allowing us to study AEs using the APQ for both genders and in both countries. No significant differences in factor means were found between countries, indicating that AEs are not an obstacle to student mobility. Gender differences were found in some AE factor means, Training for employment, Personal and social development, Student mobility, Political engagement and citizenship, and Social pressure, with males exhibiting higher scores. Because these differences are not supported by most literature in this domain, further studies are needed to clarify the causes of women’s lower expectations and, therefore, risk of adaptation difficulties

    Consistent patterns of common species across tropical tree communities

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    Trees structure the Earth’s most biodiverse ecosystem, tropical forests. The vast number of tree species presents a formidable challenge to understanding these forests, including their response to environmental change, as very little is known about most tropical tree species. A focus on the common species may circumvent this challenge. Here we investigate abundance patterns of common tree species using inventory data on 1,003,805 trees with trunk diameters of at least 10 cm across 1,568 locations1,2,3,4,5,6 in closed-canopy, structurally intact old-growth tropical forests in Africa, Amazonia and Southeast Asia. We estimate that 2.2%, 2.2% and 2.3% of species comprise 50% of the tropical trees in these regions, respectively. Extrapolating across all closed-canopy tropical forests, we estimate that just 1,053 species comprise half of Earth’s 800 billion tropical trees with trunk diameters of at least 10 cm. Despite differing biogeographic, climatic and anthropogenic histories7, we find notably consistent patterns of common species and species abundance distributions across the continents. This suggests that fundamental mechanisms of tree community assembly may apply to all tropical forests. Resampling analyses show that the most common species are likely to belong to a manageable list of known species, enabling targeted efforts to understand their ecology. Although they do not detract from the importance of rare species, our results open new opportunities to understand the world’s most diverse forests, including modelling their response to environmental change, by focusing on the common species that constitute the majority of their trees.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Mapping density, diversity and species-richness of the Amazon tree flora

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    Using 2.046 botanically-inventoried tree plots across the largest tropical forest on Earth, we mapped tree species-diversity and tree species-richness at 0.1-degree resolution, and investigated drivers for diversity and richness. Using only location, stratified by forest type, as predictor, our spatial model, to the best of our knowledge, provides the most accurate map of tree diversity in Amazonia to date, explaining approximately 70% of the tree diversity and species-richness. Large soil-forest combinations determine a significant percentage of the variation in tree species-richness and tree alpha-diversity in Amazonian forest-plots. We suggest that the size and fragmentation of these systems drive their large-scale diversity patterns and hence local diversity. A model not using location but cumulative water deficit, tree density, and temperature seasonality explains 47% of the tree species-richness in the terra-firme forest in Amazonia. Over large areas across Amazonia, residuals of this relationship are small and poorly spatially structured, suggesting that much of the residual variation may be local. The Guyana Shield area has consistently negative residuals, showing that this area has lower tree species-richness than expected by our models. We provide extensive plot meta-data, including tree density, tree alpha-diversity and tree species-richness results and gridded maps at 0.1-degree resolution

    Oviedo Grit Scale accuracy and validity of results of the Portuguese version

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    Este artigo analisa a dimensionalidade e outras propriedades psicométricas da versão portuguesa da Escala de Grit de Oviedo (EGO) em estudantes portugueses do ensino superior. Participaram neste estudo 899 estudantes (70.7% do sexo feminino), com idades compreendidas entre os 17 e os 59 anos (M=20.72, DP=4.38), pertencentes a cursos de diversas áreas científicas. Os resultados apontam para a unidimensionalidade do contructo da grit avaliado com esta escala, abarcando os itens de consistência dos objetivos e perseverança na sua prossecução. Esta unidimensionalidade foi também confirmada através do teste da sua invariância considerando o género e o ano curricular do curso frequentado pelos estudantes. Outros indicadores de consistência interna dos itens e de validade dos resultados por referência ao rendimento académico e à adaptabilidade de carreira dos estudantes apresentaram valores favoráveis à utilização desta escala na investigação e na intervenção com esta população estudantil.This paper analyzes the dimensionality and other psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Oviedo Grit Scale (EGO) in Portuguese higher education students. A total of 899 students participated in this study (70.7% female), aged between 17 and 59 years (M=20.72, SD=4.38), belonging to courses in different scientific areas. The results point to the unidimensionality of the grit construct evaluated with this scale, encompassing the items of consistency of objectives and perseverance in their pursuit. This unidimensionality was also confirmed through the test of its invariance considering the gender and the curricular year of the course attended by the students. Other indicators of internal consistency of the items and validity of the results with reference to students’ academic performance and career adaptability showed favorable values for the use of this scale in research and intervention with this student population.Este trabalho é financiado por fundos nacionais através da FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P., no âmbito do projeto PTDC/CED-EDG/0122/2020 e dos projetos UIDB/01661/2020 e UIDP/01661/202

    The LHCb upgrade I

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    International audienceThe LHCb upgrade represents a major change of the experiment. The detectors have been almost completely renewed to allow running at an instantaneous luminosity five times larger than that of the previous running periods. Readout of all detectors into an all-software trigger is central to the new design, facilitating the reconstruction of events at the maximum LHC interaction rate, and their selection in real time. The experiment's tracking system has been completely upgraded with a new pixel vertex detector, a silicon tracker upstream of the dipole magnet and three scintillating fibre tracking stations downstream of the magnet. The whole photon detection system of the RICH detectors has been renewed and the readout electronics of the calorimeter and muon systems have been fully overhauled. The first stage of the all-software trigger is implemented on a GPU farm. The output of the trigger provides a combination of totally reconstructed physics objects, such as tracks and vertices, ready for final analysis, and of entire events which need further offline reprocessing. This scheme required a complete revision of the computing model and rewriting of the experiment's software

    Software Product Line Engineering via Software Transplantation

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    For companies producing related products, a Software Product Line (SPL) is a software reuse method that improves time-to-market and software quality, achieving substantial cost reductions.These benefits do not come for free. It often takes years to re-architect and re-engineer a codebase to support SPL and, once adopted, it must be maintained. Current SPL practice relies on a collection of tools, tailored for different reengineering phases, whose output developers must coordinate and integrate. We present Foundry, a general automated approach for leveraging software transplantation to speed conversion to and maintenance of SPL. Foundry facilitates feature extraction and migration. It can efficiently, repeatedly, transplant a sequence of features, implemented in multiple files. We used Foundry to create two valid product lines that integrate features from three real-world systems in an automated way. Moreover, we conducted an experiment comparing Foundry's feature migration with manual effort. We show that Foundry automatically migrated features across codebases 4.8 times faster, on average, than the average time a group of SPL experts took to accomplish the task
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