141 research outputs found

    Extracellular Vesicles in Comorbidities Associated with Ischaemic Heart Disease: Focus on Sex, an Overlooked Factor

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    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are emerging early markers of myocardial damage and key mediators of cardioprotection. Therefore, EV are becoming fascinating tools to prevent cardiovascular disease and feasible weapons to limit ischaemia/reperfusion injury. It is well known that metabolic syndrome negatively affects vascular and endothelial function, thus creating predisposition to ischemic diseases. Additionally, sex is known to significantly impact myocardial injury and cardioprotection. Therefore, actions able to reduce risk factors related to comorbidities in ischaemic diseases are required to prevent maladaptive ventricular remodelling, preserve cardiac function, and prevent the onset of heart failure. This implies that early diagnosis and personalised medicine, also related to sex differences, are mandatory for primary or secondary prevention. Here, we report the contribution of EV as biomarkers and/or therapeutic tools in comorbidities predisposing to cardiac ischaemic disease. Whenever possible, attention is dedicated to data linking EV to sex differences

    The Inflammatory Cytokine IL-3 Hampers Cardioprotection Mediated by Endothelial Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Possibly via Their Protein Cargo

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    The biological relevance of extracellular vesicles (EV) released in an ischemia/reperfusion setting is still unclear. We hypothesized that the inflammatory microenvironment prevents cardioprotection mediated by endothelial cell (EC)-derived extracellular vesicles. The effects of naïve EC-derived EV (eEV) or eEV released in response to interleukin-3 (IL-3) (eEV-IL-3) were evaluated in cardiomyoblasts (H9c2) and rat hearts. In transwell assay, eEV protected the H9c2 exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) more efficiently than eEV-IL-3. Conversely, only eEV directly protected H9c2 cells to H/R-induced damage. Consistent with this latter observation, eEV, but not eEV-IL-3, exerted beneficial effects in the whole heart. Protein profiles of eEV and eEV-IL-3, established using label-free mass spectrometry, demonstrated that IL-3 drives changes in eEV-IL-3 protein cargo. Gene ontology analysis revealed that both eEV and eEV-IL-3 were equipped with full cardioprotective machinery, including the Nitric Oxide Signaling in the Cardiovascular System. eEV-IL-3 were also enriched in the endothelial-nitric oxide-synthase (eNOS)-antagonist caveolin-1 and proteins related to the inflammatory response. In vitro and ex vivo experiments demonstrated that a functional Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase (MEK1/2)/eNOS/guanylyl-cyclase (GC) pathway is required for eEV-mediated cardioprotection. Consistently, eEV were found enriched in MEK1/2 and able to induce the expression of B-cell-lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and the phosphorylation of eNOS in vitro. We conclude that an inflammatory microenvironment containing IL-3 changes the eEV cargo and impairs eEV cardioprotective action

    Synthesis and evaluation of new Hsp90 inhibitors based on a 1,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazole scaffold

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    Abstract: Ruthenium catalyzed 1,3-cycloaddition (click chemistry) of an azido moiety installed on dihydroxycumene scaffold with differently substituted aryl propiolates, gave a new family of 1,4,5-trisubstitued triazole carboxylic acid derivatives that showed high affinity towards Hsp90 associated with cell proliferation inhibition, both in nanomolar range. The 1,5 arrangement of the resorcinol, the aryl moieties, and the presence of an alkyl (secondary) amide in position 4 of the triazole ring, were essential to get high activity. Docking simulations suggested that the triazoles penetrate the Hsp90 ATP binding site. Some 1,4,5-trisubstitued triazole carboxamides induced dramatic depletion of the examined client proteins and a very strong increase in the expression levels of the chaperone Hsp70. In vitro metabolic stability and in vivo preliminary studies on selected compounds have shown promising results comparable to the potent Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922. One of them, (compound 18; SST0287CL1) was selected for further investigation as the most promising drug candidate

    Catestatin Induces Glucose Uptake and GLUT4 Trafficking in Adult Rat Cardiomyocytes

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    Catestatin is a cationic and hydrophobic peptide derived from the enzymatic cleavage of the prohormone Chromogranin A. Initially identified as a potent endogenous nicotinic–cholinergic antagonist, Catestatin has recently been shown to act as a novel regulator of cardiac function and blood pressure and as a cardioprotective agent in both pre- and postconditioning through AKT-dependent mechanisms. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of Catestatin also on cardiac metabolism modulation, particularly on cardiomyocytes glucose uptake. Experiments were performed on isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. Glucose uptake was assessed by fluorescent glucose incubation and confocal microscope analysis. Glut4 plasma membrane translocation was studied by immunofluorescence experiments and evaluation of the ratio peripheral vs internal Glut4 staining. Furthermore, we performed immunoblot experiments to investigate the involvement of the intracellular pathway AKT/AS160 in the Catestatin dependent Glut4 trafficking. Our results show that 10 nM Catestatin induces a significant increase in the fluorescent glucose uptake, comparable to that exerted by 100 nM Insulin. Moreover, Catestatin stimulates Glut4 translocation to plasma membrane and both AKT and AS160 phosphorylation. All these effects were inhibited by Wortmannin. On the whole, we show for the first time that Catestatin is able to modulate cardiac glucose metabolism, by inducing an increase in glucose uptake through Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane and that this mechanism is mediated by the AKT/AS160 intracellular pathway

    Platelets, diabetes and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury

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    Abstract Mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion injury are particularly complex, multifactorial and highly interconnected. A complex and entangled interaction is also emerging between platelet function, antiplatelet drugs, coronary diseases and ischemia/reperfusion injury, especially in diabetic conditions. Here we briefly summarize features of antiplatelet therapy in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We also treat the influence of T2DM on ischemia/reperfusion injury and how anti-platelet therapies affect post-ischemic myocardial damage through pleiotropic properties not related to their anti-aggregating effects. miRNA-based signature associated with T2DM and its cardiovascular disease complications are also briefly considered. Influence of anti-platelet therapies and different effects of healthy and diabetic platelets on ischemia/reperfusion injury need to be further clarified in order to enhance patient benefits from antiplatelet therapy and revascularization. Here we provide insight on the difficulty to reduce the cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients and report novel information on the cardioprotective role of widely used anti-aggregant drugs
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