6,375 research outputs found

    Discrete Redox Signaling Pathways Regulate Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting and Chloroplast Gene Transcription

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    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

    Why chloroplasts and mitochondria retain their own genomes and genetic systems: Colocation for redox regulation of gene expression

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    Chloroplasts and mitochondria are subcellular bioenergetic organelles with their own genomes and genetic systems. DNA replication and transmission to daughter organelles produces cytoplasmic inheritance of characters associated with primary events in photosynthesis and respiration. The prokaryotic ancestors of chloroplasts and mitochondria were endosymbionts whose genes became copied to the genomes of their cellular hosts. These copies gave rise to nuclear chromosomal genes that encode cytosolic proteins and precursor proteins that are synthesized in the cytosol for import into the organelle into which the endosymbiont evolved. What accounts for the retention of genes for the complete synthesis within chloroplasts and mitochondria of a tiny minority of their protein subunits? One hypothesis is that expression of genes for protein subunits of energy-transducing enzymes must respond to physical environmental change by means of a direct and unconditional regulatory control—control exerted by change in the redox state of the corresponding gene product. This hypothesis proposes that, to preserve function, an entire redox regulatory system has to be retained within its original membrane-bound compartment. Colocation of gene and gene product for redox regulation of gene expression (CoRR) is a hypothesis in agreement with the results of a variety of experiments designed to test it and which seem to have no other satisfactory explanation. Here, I review evidence relating to CoRR and discuss its development, conclusions, and implications. This overview also identifies predictions concerning the results of experiments that may yet prove the hypothesis to be incorrect

    The CoRR hypothesis for genes in organelles

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    Chloroplasts and mitochondria perform energy transduction in photosynthesis and respiration. These processes can be described in physico-chemical terms with no obvious requirement for co-located genetic systems, separat from those of the rest of the cell. Accordingly, biochemists once tended to regard endosymbiosis as untestable evolutionary speculation. Lynn Sagan's seminal 1967 paper "On the Origin of Mitosing Cells" outlined the evolution of eukaryotic cells by endosymbiosis of prokaryotes. The endosymbiont hypothesis is consistent with presence of DNA in chloroplasts and mitochondria, but does not assign it a function. Biochemistry and molecular biology now show that Sagan's proposal has an explanatory reach far beyond that originally envisaged. Prokaryotic origins of photosynthetic and respiratory mechanisms are apparent in protein structural insights into energy coupling. Genome sequencing confirms the underlying, prokaryotic architecture of chloroplasts and mitochondria and illustrates the profound influence of the original mergers of their ancestors' genes and proteins with those of their host cells. Peter Mitchell's 1961 chemiosmotic hypothesis applied the concept of vectorial catalysis that underlies biological energy transduction and cell structure, function, and origins. Continuity of electrical charge separation and membrane sidedness requires compartments within compartments, together with intricate mechanisms for transport within and between them. I suggest that the reason for the persistence of distinct genetic systems within bioenergetic organelles is the selective advantage of subcellular co-location of specific genes with their gene products. Co-location for Redox Regulation - CoRR - provides for a dialogue between chemical reduction-oxidation and the action of genes encoding its protein catalysts. These genes and their protein products are in intimate contact, and cannot be isolated from each other without loss of an essential mechanism of adaptation of electron transport to change in the external environment

    An algal greening of land

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    Looking back at superfluid helium

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    A few years after the discovery of Bose Einstein condensation in several gases, it is interesting to look back at some properties of superfluid helium. After a short historical review, I comment shortly on boiling and evaporation, then on the role of rotons and vortices in the existence of a critical velocity in superfluid helium. I finally discuss the existence of a condensate in a liquid with strong interactions, and the pressure variation of its superfluid transition temperature.Comment: Conference "Bose Einstein Condensation", Institut henri Poincare, Paris, 29 march 200

    Molecular Recognition: How Photosynthesis Anchors the Mobile Antenna.

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    True to its name, light-harvesting complex II (LHC II) harvests light energy for photosystem II (PS II). However, LHC II can stray, harvesting light energy for photosystem I (PS I) instead. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) now shows how this mobile antenna becomes so attached to its new partner

    3D Analysis of chromosome architecture: advantages and limitations with SEM

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    Three-dimensional mitotic plant chromosome architecture can be investigated with the highest resolution with scanning electron microscopy compared to other microscopic techniques at present. Specific chromatin staining techniques making use of simultaneous detection of back-scattered electrons and secondary electrons have provided conclusive information on the distribution of DNA and protein in barley chromosomes through mitosis. Applied to investigate the structural effects of different preparative procedures, these techniques were the groundwork for the ``dynamic matrix model{''} for chromosome condensation, which postulates an energy-dependent process of looping and bunching of chromatin coupled with attachment to a dynamic matrix of associated protein fibers. Data from SEM analysis shows basic higher order chromatin structures: chromomeres and matrix fibers. Visualization of nanogold-labeled phosphorylated histone H3 (ser10) with high resolution on chromomeres shows that functional modifications of chromatin can be located on structural elements in a 3D context. Copyright (C) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

    Probing the nucleotide-binding activity of a redox sensor: two-component regulatory control in chloroplasts

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    Two-component signal transduction systems mediate adaptation to environmental changes in bacteria, plants, fungi, and protists. Each two-component system consists of a sensor histidine kinase and a response regu- lator. Chloroplast sensor kinase (CSK) is a modified sensor histidine kinase found in chloroplasts—photosynthetic organelles of plants and algae. CSK regulates the tran- scription of chloroplast genes in response to changes in photosynthetic electron transport. In this study, the full- length and truncated forms of Arabidopsis CSK proteins were overexpressed and purified in order to characterise their kinase and redox sensing activities. Our results show that CSK contains a modified kinase catalytic domain that binds ATP with high affinity and forms a quinone adduct that may confer redox sensing activity

    Translating photosynthesis

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    Chloroplasts contain their own genomes and genetic systems. Their ribosomes synthesize conserved core proteins in photosynthesis. A complete chloroplast ribosome structure now reveals features convergent with those of ribosomes in mitochondria

    Expressiveness of Temporal Query Languages: On the Modelling of Intervals, Interval Relationships and States

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    Storing and retrieving time-related information are important, or even critical, tasks on many areas of Computer Science (CS) and in particular for Artificial Intelligence (AI). The expressive power of temporal databases/query languages has been studied from different perspectives, but the kind of temporal information they are able to store and retrieve is not always conveniently addressed. Here we assess a number of temporal query languages with respect to the modelling of time intervals, interval relationships and states, which can be thought of as the building blocks to represent and reason about a large and important class of historic information. To survey the facilities and issues which are particular to certain temporal query languages not only gives an idea about how useful they can be in particular contexts, but also gives an interesting insight in how these issues are, in many cases, ultimately inherent to the database paradigm. While in the area of AI declarative languages are usually the preferred choice, other areas of CS heavily rely on the extended relational paradigm. This paper, then, will be concerned with the representation of historic information in two well known temporal query languages: it Templog in the context of temporal deductive databases, and it TSQL2 in the context of temporal relational databases. We hope the results highlighted here will increase cross-fertilisation between different communities. This article can be related to recent publications drawing the attention towards the different approaches followed by the Databases and AI communities when using time-related concepts