182 research outputs found

    Nutrient and Food Group Intakes of Low-Income Pregnant Women by Race/Ethnicity

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    In an exploratory study, a convenience sample of 148 pregnant women was recruited from a WIC clinic in the southeast region of the U.S. to: 1) Examine and compare daily nutrient and food group intakes of WIC pregnant women to national guidelines, and; 2) Determine racial/ethnic differences in nutrient and food group intakes among WIC pregnant women. Women were selected for the study if they were: ≥ 18 y, in 2nd trimester of pregnancy, and if they spoke English or Spanish as a first language. Upon recruitment, participants were interviewed to collect information on their socio-demographics, including race/ethnicity. Additionally, 24-h diet recalls were conducted to collect information on average nutrient and food groups intakes of participants during pregnancy. Of the total participants, more than half self-identified as African American (59%), while the remaining reported being Hispanic (20%) and non-Hispanic White (22%). For nutrient intakes, women consumed folate, iron, and potassium below recommended amounts. In contrast, sodium was consumed above the recommendations for pregnancy. For food groups, intake of fruits and whole grains was limited. In comparison by race/ethnicity, specifically it was found that African American women were consuming higher amounts of carbohydrates, but lower amounts of potassium, vitamin A, and fiber in reference to non-minority group of non-Hispanic Whites. While, Hispanic women were consuming lower amounts of added sugar and animal protein than non-Hispanic Whites. Findings highlight the importance of prenatal nutrition education programs and interventions to improve dietary habits of low-income, racial/ethnic minority women. Inter-racial and ethnic differences exist in dietary intake patterns among low-income pregnant women, with African American women being at an increased risk for poor dietary habits and inability to meet nutrient requirements for pregnancy

    Association Between Physical Activity and Proximity to Physical Activity Resources Among Low-Income, Midlife Women

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    INTRODUCTION: The association between levels of physical activity and perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources is unclear. Clarification is important so that future programs can intervene upon the measure with the greatest association. We examined correlations between perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources and then examined associations between both measures of proximity and objectively measured physical activity. METHODS: Participants (n = 199) were underinsured women from three counties in southeastern North Carolina. Perceived proximity to physical activity resources (e.g., parks, gyms, schools) was measured using surveys. Objectively measured proximity included geographic information systems road network distance to the closest resource and existence of resources within 1- and 2-mile buffers surrounding participants' homes. To examine the association between proximity to resources and activity, the dependent variable in multiple linear regression models was the natural logarithm of accelerometer-measured moderate to vigorous physical activity in minutes per day. RESULTS: Pearson correlation coefficients for perceptions of distance and objectively measured distance to physical activity resources ranged from 0.40 (gyms, schools) to 0.54 (parks). Perceived distance to gyms and objective number of schools within 1-mile buffers were negatively associated with activity. No statistically significant relationships were found between activity and perceived or objectively measured proximity to parks. CONCLUSION: Results indicate the need for both individual and environmental intervention strategies to increase levels of physical activity among underinsured, midlife women. More work is needed to determine the most effective strategies

    Sociodemographic Disparities in Proximity of Schools to Tobacco Outlets and Fast-Food Restaurants

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    Objectives. To examine the association of school sociodemographic characteristics with tobacco outlet and fast-food restaurant availability near schools in a national study

    Impact of Weight of the Nation Community Screenings on Obesity-Related Beliefs

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    HBO’s Weight of the Nation was a collaborative effort among several national organizations to raise awareness about the complexity of the obesity epidemic and promote action through media and community forums. The primary aim of this study was to assess the short-term effects of Weight of the Nation community screenings on obesity-related beliefs, intentions, and policy support

    Small Food Store Retailers’ Willingness to Implement Healthy Store Strategies in Rural North Carolina

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    Access to supermarkets is lacking in many rural areas. Small food stores are often available, but typically lack healthy food items such as fresh produce. We assessed small food store retailer willingness to implement 12 healthy store strategies to increase the availability, display, and promotion of healthy foods and decrease the availability, display, and promotion of tobacco products. Interviews were conducted with 55 small food store retailers in three rural North Carolina counties concurrently with store observations assessing current practices related to the strategies. All stores sold low-calorie beverages, sugar-sweetened beverages, candy and cigarettes. Nearly all sold smokeless tobacco and cigars/cigarillos, and 72% sold e-cigarettes. Fresh fruits were sold at 30.2% of stores; only 9.4% sold fresh vegetables. Retailers reported being most willing to stock skim/low-fat milk, display healthy snacks near the register, and stock whole wheat bread. About 50% were willing to stock at least three fresh fruits and three fresh vegetables, however only 2% of stores currently stocked these foods. Nearly all retailers expressed unwillingness to reduce the availability of tobacco products or marketing. Our results show promise for working with retailers in rural settings to increase healthy food availability in small food stores. However, restrictions on retail tobacco sales and marketing may be more feasible through local tobacco control ordinances, or could be included with healthy foods ordinances that require stores to stock a minimum amount of healthy foods

    Multilevel Interventions To Address Health Disparities Show Promise In Improving Population Health

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    Multilevel interventions are those that affect at least two levels of influence—for example, the patient and the health care provider. They can be experimental designs or natural experiments caused by changes in policy, such as the implementation of the Affordable Care Act or local policies. Measuring the effects of multilevel interventions is challenging, because they allow for interaction among levels, and the impact of each intervention must be assessed and translated into practice. We discuss how two projects from the National Institutes of Health’s Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities used multilevel interventions to reduce health disparities. The interventions, which focused on the uptake of the human papillomavirus vaccine and community-level dietary change, had mixed results. The design and implementation of multilevel interventions are facilitated by input from the community, and more advanced methods and measures are needed to evaluate the impact of the various levels and components of such interventions

    Effects of a Tailored Follow-Up Intervention on Health Behaviors, Beliefs, and Attitudes

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    Background: The high rates of relapse that tend to occur after short-term behavioral interventions indicate the need for maintenance programs that promote long-term adherence to new behavior patterns. Computer-tailored health messages that are mailed to participants or given in brief telephone calls offer an innovative and time-efficient alternative to ongoing face-to-face contact with healthcare providers. Methods: Following a 1-year behavior change program, 22 North Carolina health departments were randomly assigned to a follow-up intervention or control condition. Data were collected from 1999 to 2001 by telephone-administered surveys at preintervention and postintervention for 511 low-income, midlife adult women enrolled in the Well-Integrated Screening and Evaluation for Women Across the Nation (WISEWOMAN) program at local North Carolina health departments. During the year after the behavior change program, intervention participants were mailed six sets of computer-tailored health messages and received two computer-tailored telephone counseling sessions. Main outcomes of dietary and physical activity behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes were measured. Results: Intervention participants were more likely to move forward into more advanced stages of physical activity change (p = 0.02); control participants were more likely to increase their level of dietary social support at follow-up (p = 0.05). Both groups maintained low levels of reported saturated fat and cholesterol intake at follow-up. No changes were seen in physical activity in either group. Conclusions: Mailed computer-tailored health messages and telephone counseling calls favorably modified forward physical activity stage movement but did not appreciably affect any other psychosocial or behavioral outcomes

    Impact of lipid-based nutrient supplementation (LNS) on children\u27s diet adequacy in Western Uganda

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    Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) can help treat undernutrition; however, the dietary adequacy of children supplemented with LNS, and household utilisation patterns are not well understood. We assessed diet adequacy and the quality of complementary foods by conducting a diet assessment of 128 Ugandan children, ages 6-59 months, who participated in a 10-week programme for children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM, defined as weight-for-age z-score \u3c -2). Caregivers were given a weekly ration of 650 kcal day (-1) (126 g day(-1)) of a peanut/ soy LNS. Two 24-h dietary recalls were administered per child. LNS was offered to 86% of targeted children at least once. Among non-breastfed children, over 90% met their estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-points for all examined nutrients. Over 90% of breastfed children met EAR cut-points for nutrient density for most nutrients, except for zinc where 11.7% met cut-points. A lower proportion of both breastfed and non-breastfed children met adjusted EARs for the specific nutritional needs of MAM. Fewer than 20% of breastfed children met EAR nutrient-density guidelines for MAM for zinc, vitamin C, vitamin A and folate. Underweight status, the presence of a father in the child\u27s home, and higher programme attendance were all associated with greater odds of feeding LNS to targeted children. Children in this community-based supplemental feeding programme who received a locally produced LNS exhibited substantial micronutrient deficiencies given the special dietary needs of this population. These results can help inform programme strategies to improve LNS targeting, and highlight potential nutrient inadequacies for consumers of LNS in community-based settings

    A randomized controlled trial of a physician-directed treatment program for low-income patients with high blood cholesterol: the Southeast Cholesterol Project

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    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a cholesterol-lowering intervention designed to facilitate the management of hypercholesterolemia by primary care clinicians. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial, with randomization of clinician-patient groups. SETTING: Twenty-one community and rural health centers in North Carolina and Virginia. PARTICIPANTS: Primary care clinicians (n = 42, 71% physicians) and the patients they enrolled with high cholesterol (n = 372). Twenty-two clinicians were randomized to give the special intervention (184 patients) and 20 to give usual care (188 patients). Two thirds of participating patients were women, 40% were African American, and 11% were Native American. INTERVENTION: A 90-minute tutorial to train clinicians how to use a structured assessment and treatment program (Food for Heart Program) consisting of a brief dietary assessment and three 5- to 10-minute dietary counseling sessions given by the primary care clinician, referral to a local dietitian if the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remained elevated at 4-month follow-up, and a prompt for the clinician to consider lipid-lowering medication based on the LDL-C at 7-month follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in total and LDL cholesterol at 4-month follow-up and averaged over a 1-year follow-up period (4-, 7-, and 12-month follow-up). RESULTS: At 4-month follow-up, total cholesterol decreased 0.33 mmol/L (12.6 mg/dL) in the intervention group and 0.21 mmol/L (8.3 mg/dL) in the control group: the difference was 0.11 mmol/L (4.2 mg/dL) (90% confidence interval [CI], -0.02 to 0.24 mmol/L [-0.7 to 9.1 mg/dL]). The average reduction during the 1-year follow-up period was 0.09 mmol/L (3.6 mg/dL) greater in the intervention group (90% CI, -0.01 to 0.19 mmol/L [-0.3 to 7.5 mg/dL]). Eight percent of intervention patients were taking lipid-lowering medication at follow-up visits compared with 15% of control patients. In a subgroup analysis restricted to the 89% of returnees who were not taking lipid-lowering medication, the reduction in total cholesterol at 4-month follow-up was 0.14 mmol/L (5.5 mg/dL) greater in the intervention group (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.28 mmol/L [0.3 to 10.7 mg/dL]); averaged over 1 year, it was 0.14 mmol/L (5.3 mg/dL) greater (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.24 mmol/L [1.2 to 9.4 mg/dL]). Changes in LDL-C were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Total cholesterol and LDL-C decreased more in the intervention group than in the control group. Overall, the difference in lipid reduction between groups was modest and of borderline statistical significance; among participants who did not take lipid-lowering medication during follow-up, the difference in lipid reduction between groups was larger. We conclude that primary care clinicians can be trained to give a cholesterol-lowering intervention to low-income patients that results in modest, short-term reductions in total cholesterol and LDL-C

    Food Policy Council Self-Assessment Tool: Development, Testing, and Results

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    A large number of food policy councils (FPCs) exist in the United States, Canada, and Tribal Nations (N = 278), yet there are no tools designed to measure their members' perceptions of organizational capacity, social capital, and council effectiveness. Without such tools, it is challenging to determine best practices for FPCs and to measure change within and across councils over time. This study describes the development, testing, and findings from the Food Policy Council Self-Assessment Tool (FPC-SAT). The assessment measures council practices and council members' perceptions of the following concepts: leadership, breadth of active membership, council climate, formality of council structure, knowledge sharing, relationships, member empowerment, community context, synergy, and impacts on the food system. All 278 FPCs listed on the Food Policy Network's Online Directory were recruited to complete the FPC-SAT. Internal reliability (Cronbach's α) and inter-rater reliability (AD, rWG(J), ICC [intraclass correlations][1], ICC[2]) were calculated, and exploratory and a confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Responses from 354 FPC members from 94 councils were used to test the assessment. Cronbach's α ranged from 0.79 to 0.93 for the scales. FPC members reported the lowest mean scores on the breadth of active membership scale (2.49; standard deviation [SD], 0.62), indicating room for improvement, and highest on the leadership scale (3.45; SD, 0.45). The valid FPC-SAT can be used to identify FPC strengths and areas for improvement, measure differences across FPCs, and measure change in FPCs over time
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