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    Chlamydophila pneumoniae

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    AbstractChlamydophila pneumoniae infection is ubiquitous. It accounts for 10% of community-acquired pneumonias and 5% of cases of pharyngitis, bronchitis and sinusitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. It is also involved in exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and asthma. Moreover, C. pneumoniae has been reported as a possible cause of atherosclerosis and central nervous system disorders. The current reference standard for serological diagnosis of acute infection is microimmunofluorescence testing, although molecular detection techniques may well become reference diagnostic tests in the near future. Tetracyclines and erythromycin show good in vitro activity, and so far have been the most commonly employed drugs in the treatment of C. pneumoniae infection. New macrolides, ketolides and fluoroquinolones are other potentially effective drugs. This review analyses the most recent data concerning the involvement of C. pneumoniae in human diseases

    Heuristic Learning as a Method for Improving Students’ Teamwork Skills in Physical Education

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    Transversal skills are the knowledge, skills, and personal qualities that are currently needed to meet the demands of the working world and everyday life. Schools have the task of equipping students with these skills, working not only on disciplinary goals but also on operational–behavioral goals. In 2018, the European Union adopted new recommendations on eight key competencies for lifelong learning and asked schools to implement new methods to develop these recommendations. To be successful, it is necessary to stimulate students’ development of these competences, which are also called soft skills, from the earliest years of the school experience. Physical education (PE) is called upon to make its contribution. In Italy, the two teaching methods used during PE classes are prescriptive teaching and heuristic learning. It is not clear which of the two methods is the most effective in improving soft skills, especially the skills involved in teamwork. The objective of this article was to compare the effects of these two teaching methods on students’ teamwork skills during PE classes in primary schools. After verifying the normality of the data, a Student’s t-test for dependent samples was performed to assess pre-test and post-test differences in each of two groups, while a Student’s t-test for independent samples was performed to compare the two groups after 3 months. Heuristic learning proved to be the most effective method for improving teamwork skills. The results may make an important contribution to future teacher training on the most effective teaching methods for developing students’ soft skill

    Disability and inclusion: swimming to overcome social barriers

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    Nowadays all people can and must practice physical activity and engage themselves in various sports specialties. Among the various sports, swimming is ideal in all situations where the weight of the body is a problem, such as in cases of lower limbs disability (amputations, paralysis, etc.). The objective of this study is to investigate if disabled and not-disabled athletes can derive performance benefits and if it is possible to reduce the gap between the competition times between athletes, through a single, performance and training activity. The sample is made up of 12 athletes, including 6 disabled, belonging to the S2 category, and 6 not-disabled athletes skilled in the back. After an anamnesis and a careful initial valuation, it was proposed to all the athletes to do the HIIT method (for 4 weeks), Tabata method (for 4 weeks), and Pilates one (for 8 weeks). Moreover, to the disabled athletes were given physiotherapy sessions to increase joint ROM for 8 weeks. The aim is to promote social inclusion for disabled athletes, often marginalized by the group, to break down those who are the pillars of difference

    Selection of Candidates for Lung Transplantation: The First Italian Consensus Statement

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    Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for selected patients with advanced chronic respiratory insufficiency. Recognizing those patients with end-stage lung disease who might benefit from lung transplantation is a crucial task. Considering the presence of inadequate evidence-based practice, international and national scientific societies provided consensus opinions regarding the appropriate timing of listing. The Study Group for Thoracic Organs Transplantation (branch of the Italian Society for Organs Transplantation) promoted and realized a Delphi conference among the Italian lung transplantation centers to provide guidance to clinical practice based on international recommendations. The experts from the nine Italian centers completed two rounds of standardized questionnaires (answer rate, 100%): 42 statements received a consensus >= 80%. The selected statements presented in this article are intended to assist Italian clinicians in selecting patients for lung transplantation

    Pneumonia: how important are local epidemiology and smoking habits?

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    Prevalence and incidence of bronchiectasis in Italy

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    BACKGROUND: The understanding of the epidemiology of bronchiectasis is still affected by major limitations with very few data published worldwide. The aim of this study was to estimate the epidemiological burden of bronchiectasis in Italy in the adult population followed-up by primary care physicians. METHODS: This study analyzed data coming from a large primary care database with 1,054,376 subjects in the period of time 2002-2015. Patients with bronchiectasis were selected by the use of International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification codes (ICD-9-CM). RESULTS: Patients with bronchiectasis were more likely to have a history of tuberculosis (0.47% vs. 0.06%, p\u2009<\u20090.0001), had higher rates of asthma (16.6% vs. 6.2%, p\u2009<\u20090.0001), COPD (23.3% vs. 6.4%, p\u2009<\u20090.0001) and rheumatoid arthritis (1.9% vs. 0.8%, p\u2009<\u20090.0001). The prevalence and incidence of bronchiectasis in primary care in Italy in 2015 were 163 per 100,000 population and 16.3 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Prevalence and incidence increased with age and overall rates were highest in men over 75\u2009years old. Prevalence and incidence computed after the exclusion of patients with a diagnosis of either asthma or COPD is 130 per 100,000 and 11.1 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchiectasis is not a rare condition in Italian adult population. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and provide a better insight on etiology of bronchiectasis in Italy

    From Ivacaftor to Triple Combination: A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety of CFTR Modulators in People with Cystic Fibrosis

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    Over the last years CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) modulators have shown the ability to improve relevant clinical outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This review aims at a systematic research of the current evidence on efficacy and tolerability of CFTR modulators for different genetic subsets of patients with CF. Two investigators independently performed the search on PubMed and included phase 2 and 3 clinical trials published in the study period 1 January 2005\u201331 January 2020. A final pool of 23 papers was included in the systematic review for a total of 4219 patients. For each paper data of interest were extracted and reported in table. In terms of lung function, patients who had the most beneficial effects from CFTR modulation were those patients with one gating mutation receiving IVA (ivacaftor) and patients with p.Phe508del mutation, both homozygous and heterozygous, receiving ELX/TEZ/IVA (elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor) had the most relevant beneficial effects in term of lung function, pulmonary exacerbation decrease, and symptom improvement. CFTR modulators showed an overall favorable safety profile. Next steps should aim to systematize our comprehension of scientific data of efficacy and safety coming from real life observational studie
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