16 research outputs found

    Hydroxychloroquine Induced Cardiomyopathy

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    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is one of the immunomodulatory medications used in treatment of autoimmune diseases. Rarely, HCQ can cause serious complications, such as cardiotoxicity. We present a rare case of HCQ-induced cardiomyopathy. 60-year-old female patient with a medical history of SLE on chronic HCQ therapy for 28 years, preexisting non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction for 7 years, and complete heart block status post pacemaker insertion presented with acute chest pain and severe weight loss. Patient underwent coronary angiogram that showed normal coronaries and right-sided heart catheterization that showed acute heart failure. Echocardiogram showed LVEF of 30% with global hypokinesis. Patient was started on dobutamine with an improvement of her symptoms. As HCQ-induced cardiomyopathy was suspected, patient underwent an endomyocardial biopsy that revealed a pathognomonic finding of myocyte vacuolization, consistent with HCQ-induced cardiomyopathy. HCQ was discontinued immediately. However, patient was a poor candidate for heart transplantation and durable mechanical circulatory support due to severe malnutrition secondary to end-stage heart failure. Patient accepted hospice care and passed away peacefully. This case highlights the need for high index of clinical suspicion, careful medication reconciliation for patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and tissue biopsy with careful histopathological examination to diagnose this rare complication

    Mortality from gastrointestinal congenital anomalies at 264 hospitals in 74 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries: a multicentre, international, prospective cohort study

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    Summary Background Congenital anomalies are the fifth leading cause of mortality in children younger than 5 years globally. Many gastrointestinal congenital anomalies are fatal without timely access to neonatal surgical care, but few studies have been done on these conditions in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We compared outcomes of the seven most common gastrointestinal congenital anomalies in low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries globally, and identified factors associated with mortality. Methods We did a multicentre, international prospective cohort study of patients younger than 16 years, presenting to hospital for the first time with oesophageal atresia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, intestinal atresia, gastroschisis, exomphalos, anorectal malformation, and Hirschsprung’s disease. Recruitment was of consecutive patients for a minimum of 1 month between October, 2018, and April, 2019. We collected data on patient demographics, clinical status, interventions, and outcomes using the REDCap platform. Patients were followed up for 30 days after primary intervention, or 30 days after admission if they did not receive an intervention. The primary outcome was all-cause, in-hospital mortality for all conditions combined and each condition individually, stratified by country income status. We did a complete case analysis. Findings We included 3849 patients with 3975 study conditions (560 with oesophageal atresia, 448 with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, 681 with intestinal atresia, 453 with gastroschisis, 325 with exomphalos, 991 with anorectal malformation, and 517 with Hirschsprung’s disease) from 264 hospitals (89 in high-income countries, 166 in middleincome countries, and nine in low-income countries) in 74 countries. Of the 3849 patients, 2231 (58·0%) were male. Median gestational age at birth was 38 weeks (IQR 36–39) and median bodyweight at presentation was 2·8 kg (2·3–3·3). Mortality among all patients was 37 (39·8%) of 93 in low-income countries, 583 (20·4%) of 2860 in middle-income countries, and 50 (5·6%) of 896 in high-income countries (p<0·0001 between all country income groups). Gastroschisis had the greatest difference in mortality between country income strata (nine [90·0%] of ten in lowincome countries, 97 [31·9%] of 304 in middle-income countries, and two [1·4%] of 139 in high-income countries; p≤0·0001 between all country income groups). Factors significantly associated with higher mortality for all patients combined included country income status (low-income vs high-income countries, risk ratio 2·78 [95% CI 1·88–4·11], p<0·0001; middle-income vs high-income countries, 2·11 [1·59–2·79], p<0·0001), sepsis at presentation (1·20 [1·04–1·40], p=0·016), higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score at primary intervention (ASA 4–5 vs ASA 1–2, 1·82 [1·40–2·35], p<0·0001; ASA 3 vs ASA 1–2, 1·58, [1·30–1·92], p<0·0001]), surgical safety checklist not used (1·39 [1·02–1·90], p=0·035), and ventilation or parenteral nutrition unavailable when needed (ventilation 1·96, [1·41–2·71], p=0·0001; parenteral nutrition 1·35, [1·05–1·74], p=0·018). Administration of parenteral nutrition (0·61, [0·47–0·79], p=0·0002) and use of a peripherally inserted central catheter (0·65 [0·50–0·86], p=0·0024) or percutaneous central line (0·69 [0·48–1·00], p=0·049) were associated with lower mortality. Interpretation Unacceptable differences in mortality exist for gastrointestinal congenital anomalies between lowincome, middle-income, and high-income countries. Improving access to quality neonatal surgical care in LMICs will be vital to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 of ending preventable deaths in neonates and children younger than 5 years by 2030

    Isolated Tuberculosis of the Cervical Vertebrae

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    Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly infectious disease that primarily affects the lungs, but extrapulmonary affection can occur with lymphatic or hematogenous spread. Skeletal affection commonly involves the spine, but cervical vertebral affection is rare. We report a 23-year-old female patient who presented to the hospital with diffuse limb weakness and neck pain as the only complaints. MRI of the cervical spine revealed a peripherally enhancing lesion arising from the posterior aspects of the cervical vertebrae with compressive myelopathy. She underwent surgical decompression and was noted to have caseous drainage during the procedure. She was started promptly on anti-tuberculous therapy after she had a positive interferon-gamma release assay. Late culture results confirmed isolated cervical TB of the vertebrae as the diagnosis. Prompt awareness and initiation of treatment for vertebral TB are necessary as clinical presentation can mimic other infectious and malignant etiologies

    Cardiac Arrest Secondary to Inferior ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Patient with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and COVID-19 Infection

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    Patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) have transient attacks of complement-mediated hemolysis and thrombosis that can be spontaneous or secondary to precipitating factors such as infections. We present a case of a 63-year-old male patient with a medical history of PNH who presented with typical chest pain, fever, cough, jaundice, and dark-colored urine. On examination, he was hemodynamically stable but had conjunctival icterus. A few minutes after presentation, the patient suffered a ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest and then achieved a return of spontaneous circulation after receiving two defibrillator shocks. EKG showed inferior wall ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Labs showed hemoglobin of 6.4 g/dl, elevated cardiac markers, serum lactate dehydrogenase, and indirect bilirubin. Serum haptoglobin was \u3c 1 mg/dl. His COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test was positive. Immediately, the patient received 2 units of packed RBCs and underwent a coronary angiogram (CA), which revealed total proximal occlusion of the right coronary artery. He underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and two drug-eluting stents were placed. His peripheral blood immunophenotyping and flow cytometry showed loss of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked antigens and decreased expression of CD 59/14/24. He was started on ravulizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody complement five inhibitor. Both PNH and COVID-19 increase the risk of thrombosis. Endothelial injury and cytokine storm increase the risk of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients, whereas the activation of the coagulation system and the impairment of the fibrinolytic system by complement cascade leads to thrombosis in PNH patients. Regardless of which pathway leads to coronary artery thrombosis, CA and PCI can be life-saving

    Molecular investigations of the effect of thermal manipulation during embryogenesis on muscle heat shock protein 70 and thermotolerance in broiler chickens

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    The objective of this study was to elucidate the optimum protocol timing of thermal manipulation (TM) during embryogenesis, which underline genetic improvement of muscle thermotolerance acquisition. For the present study, 1,440 fertile eggs were divided randomly and equally into control (37.8 °C with 56% relative humidity) and four thermally manipulated groups (TM1, TM2, TM3, and TM4) subjected to 39 °C for 18 h with 65% relative humidity daily during different embryonic periods. Then, at day 35 post-hatch, all groups were subjected to thermal challenge at 43 °C for 6 h to identify the level of thermotolerance acquisition differences between them. Hsp70 mRNA expression was evaluated by using a relative quantitatively RT-qPCR. Single nucleotide polymorphisms sequence of the Hsp70 gene was evaluated by Sanger’s sequencing method. Pectoral and thigh muscles samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry to detect Hsp70. Among TM conditions that were investigated, TM1 (39 °C for 18 h during embryonic days (ED) 7–11) induced a significant improvement in thermotolerance parameters (body temperature and T3 levels) during thermal challenge combined with an increase in the levels of Hsp70 mRNA and its protein with a high stability of nucleotide sequences in both pectoral and thigh muscles. The partial DNA sequence of Hsp70 gene in TM1 was reported, and nucleotide sequences were deposited in NCBI GenBank database with the accession numbers (MK852579) and (MK852580). Thigh muscle thermotolerance acquisition was higher than pectoral muscle during thermal challenge at 43 °C for 6 h. Thus, TM during ED7–11 may improve thermotolerance acquisition without adversely affecting performanc

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in inflammatory bowel disease: a nationwide analysis

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    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare but life-threatening immune dysregulation disease. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can become profoundly immunocompromised due to immunosuppressive therapy, hence increasing the risk of viral infections that can trigger HLH. However, data on the association between IBD and HLH remains limited. We used data from the National Inpatient Sample (2012-2019) utilizing International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 codes to identify individuals with IBD, either Crohn\u27s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), and HLH. The primary outcome was to compare the prevalence of HLH among patients with IBD with those without IBD. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality, mean hospital length of stay, and description of HLH-associated triggers in IBD patients. A total of 513,322 hospitalizations included a diagnosis of IBD, 188,297 had UC and 325,025 had CD. Compared to the general population, patients with IBD were older (median age of 52 vs. 49 years, p \u3c 0.05), more likely to be male, and of Asian/Pacific Islander descent, and had a higher median household income. There was also a higher prevalence of liver disease, autoimmune diseases, tobacco abuse, and hypothyroidism (all had p-value of \u3c 0.001) in IBD patients. There were 94 hospitalizations identified with a diagnosis of HLH in IBD patients. Compared to patients without IBD, patients with IBD had increased odds of developing HLH (0.02% vs 0.01%, p-value \u3c 0.001). After adjusting for various demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, and HLH-related conditions, IBD was an independent predictor for developing HLH (adjusted OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.847-2.866, p-value of \u3c 0.001). There was no statistical difference between CD and UC in the odds of developing HLH. Compared to IBD patients without HLH, patients with IBD and HLH had a lower mean age at diagnosis (38 vs 52, p-value of \u3c 0.001), higher in-hospital mortality (14.9% vs 1.5%, p-value of \u3c 0.001), and longer mean hospital length of stay (days) (17 vs 5.4, p-value of \u3c 0.001). Prevalence of different HLH-associated illnesses was identified in HLH patient\u27s discharge data. Lymphoma was the most common associated malignancy (18.1%) and cytomegalovirus infection was the most common associated infection (16.0%). Our population-based study suggests that IBD is independently associated with developing HLH. Early recognition of IBD patients presenting with features suggestive of HLH is warranted to aide early diagnosis and aggressive treatment