2,459 research outputs found

    Estimation Pore and Fracture Pressure Based on Log Data; Case Study: Mishrif Formation/Buzurgan Oilfield at Iraq

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    Prediction of the formation of pore and fracture pressure before constructing a drilling wells program are a crucial since it helps to prevent several drilling operations issues including lost circulation, kick, pipe sticking, blowout, and other issues. IP (Interactive Petrophysics) software is used to calculate and measure pore and fracture pressure. Eaton method, Matthews and Kelly, Modified Eaton, and Barker and Wood equations are used to calculate fracture pressure, whereas only Eaton method is used to measure pore pressure. These approaches are based on log data obtained from six wells, three from the north dome; BUCN-52, BUCN-51, BUCN-43 and the other from the south dome; BUCS-49, BUCS-48, BUCS-47. Along with the overburden pressure gradient and clay volume, which were also established first, data such as gamma ray, density, resistivity, and sonic log data are also required. A key consideration in the design of certain wells is the forecasting of fracture pressure for wells drilled in the southern Iraqi oilfield of Buzurgan. The pressure abnormality is found in MA, MB21, MC1 and MC2 units by depending on pore pressures calculated from resistivity log. In these units, depths and its equivalent normal and abnormal pressure are detected for all sex selected wells; BUCS-47, BUCS-48, BUCS-49, BUCN-43, BUCN-51 and BBCN-52. For MA, MB21, MC1, and MC2 units, the highest difference in pore pressure values are 1698 psi @ 3750 m (BUCN-51), 3420 psi @ 3900 m (BUCN-51), 788 psi @ 3980 m (BUCS-49), and 5705 psi @ 4020 m (BUCN-52). On other hands, MB11 and MB12 units have normal pressure trend in all studied wells. Finally, the results show that the highest pore and fracture pressure values is existed in North dome, in comparison with that obtained in south dome of Mishrif reservoir at Buzurgan oilfield

    Atrial fibrillation signatures on intracardiac electrograms identified by deep learning

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    Automatic detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) by cardiac devices is increasingly common yet suboptimally groups AF, flutter or tachycardia (AT) together as 'high rate events'. This may delay or misdirect therapy. Objective: We hypothesized that deep learning (DL) can accurately classify AF from AT by revealing electrogram (EGM) signatures. Methods: We studied 86 patients in whom the diagnosis of AF or AT was established at electrophysiological study (25 female, 65 ± 11 years). Custom DL architectures were trained to identify AF using N = 29,340 unipolar and N = 23,760 bipolar EGM segments. We compared DL to traditional classifiers based on rate or regularity. We explained DL using computer models to assess the impact of controlled variations in shape, rate and timing on AF/AT classification in 246,067 EGMs reconstructed from clinical data. Results: DL identified AF with AUC of 0.97 ± 0.04 (unipolar) and 0.92 ± 0.09 (bipolar). Rule-based classifiers misclassified ∼10-12% of cases. DL classification was explained by regularity in EGM shape (13%) or timing (26%), and rate (60%; p 15% timing variation, <0.48 correlation in beat-to-beat EGM shapes and CL < 190 ms (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Deep learning of intracardiac EGMs can identify AF or AT via signatures of rate, regularity in timing or shape, and specific EGM shapes. Future work should examine if these signatures differ between different clinical subpopulations with AF

    Three dimensional reconstruction to visualize atrial fibrillation activation patterns on curved atrial geometry

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    Background: The rotational activation created by spiral waves may be a mechanism for atrial fibrillation (AF), yet it is unclear how activation patterns obtained from endocardial baskets are influenced by the 3D geometric curvature of the atrium or 'unfolding' into 2D maps. We develop algorithms that can visualize spiral waves and their tip locations on curved atrial geometries. We use these algorithms to quantify differences in AF maps and spiral tip locations between 3D basket reconstructions, projection onto 3D anatomical shells and unfolded 2D surfaces. Methods: We tested our algorithms in N = 20 patients in whom AF was recorded from 64-pole baskets (Abbott, CA). Phase maps were generated by non-proprietary software to identify the tips of spiral waves, indicated by phase singularities. The number and density of spiral tips were compared in patient-specific 3D shells constructed from the basket, as well as 3D maps from clinical electroanatomic mapping systems and 2D maps. Results: Patients (59.4±12.7 yrs, 60% M) showed 1.7±0.8 phase singularities/patient, in whom ablation terminated AF in 11/20 patients (55%). There was no difference in the location of phase singularities, between 3D curved surfaces and 2D unfolded surfaces, with a median correlation coefficient between phase singularity density maps of 0.985 (0.978-0.990). No significant impact was noted by phase singularities location in more curved regions or relative to the basket location (p>0.1). Conclusions: AF maps and phase singularities mapped by endocardial baskets are qualitatively and quantitatively similar whether calculated by 3D phase maps on patient-specific curved atrial geometries or in 2D. Phase maps on patient-specific geometries may be easier to interpret relative to critical structures for ablation planning

    Non-invasive Spatial Mapping of Frequencies in Atrial Fibrillation: Correlation With Contact Mapping

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    Introduction: Regional differences in activation rates may contribute to the electrical substrates that maintain atrial fibrillation (AF), and estimating them non-invasively may help guide ablation or select anti-arrhythmic medications. We tested whether non-invasive assessment of regional AF rate accurately represents intracardiac recordings. Methods: In 47 patients with AF (27 persistent, age 63 ± 13 years) we performed 57-lead non-invasive Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI) in AF, simultaneously with 64-pole intracardiac signals of both atria. ECGI was reconstructed by Tikhonov regularization. We constructed personalized 3D AF rate distribution maps by Dominant Frequency (DF) analysis from intracardiac and non-invasive recordings. Results: Raw intracardiac and non-invasive DF differed substantially, by 0.54 Hz [0.13 - 1.37] across bi-atrial regions (R2 = 0.11). Filtering by high spectral organization reduced this difference to 0.10 Hz (cycle length difference of 1 - 11 ms) [0.03 - 0.42] for patient-level comparisons (R2 = 0.62), and 0.19 Hz [0.03 - 0.59] and 0.20 Hz [0.04 - 0.61] for median and highest DF, respectively. Non-invasive and highest DF predicted acute ablation success (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Non-invasive estimation of atrial activation rates is feasible and, when filtered by high spectral organization, provide a moderate estimate of intracardiac recording rates in AF. Non-invasive technology could be an effective tool to identify patients who may respond to AF ablation for personalized therapy

    Noninvasive Assessment of Complexity of Atrial Fibrillation Correlation With Contact Mapping and Impact of Ablation

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    [EN] Background: It is difficult to noninvasively phenotype atrial fibrillation (AF) in a way that reflects clinical end points such as response to therapy. We set out to map electrical patterns of disorganization and regions of reentrant activity in AF from the body surface using electrocardiographic imaging, calibrated to panoramic intracardiac recordings and referenced to AF termination by ablation. Methods: Bi-atrial intracardiac electrograms of 47 patients with AF at ablation (30 persistent, 29 male, 63 +/- 9 years) were recorded with 64-pole basket catheters and simultaneous 57-lead body surface ECGs. Atrial epicardial electrical activity was reconstructed and organized sites were invasively and noninvasively tracked in 3-dimension using phase singularity. In a subset of 17 patients, sites of AF organization were targeted for ablation. Results: Body surface mapping showed greater AF organization near intracardially detected drivers than elsewhere, both in phase singularity density (2.3 +/- 2.1 versus 1.9 +/- 1.6; P=0.02) and number of drivers (3.2 +/- 2.3 versus 2.7 +/- 1.7; P=0.02). Complexity, defined as the number of stable AF reentrant sites, was concordant between noninvasive and invasive methods (r(2)=0.5; CC=0.71). In the subset receiving targeted ablation, AF complexity showed lower values in those in whom AF terminated than those in whom AF did not terminate (P<0.01). Conclusions: AF complexity tracked noninvasively correlates well with organized and disorganized regions detected by panoramic intracardiac mapping and correlates with the acute outcome by ablation. This approach may assist in bedside monitoring of therapy or in improving the efficacy of ongoing ablation procedures.This article was supported in part by: Instituto de Salud Carlos III FEDER (Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional; IJCI-2014-22178, DTS16/00160; PI14/00857, PI16/01123; PI17/01059; PI17/01106), Generalitat Valenciana Grants (APOSTD/2017 and APOSTD/2018) and projects (GVA/2018/103); National Institutes of Health (Dr Narayan: R01 HL85537; K24 HL103800); EITHealth 19600 AFFINE.Rodrigo Bort, M.; Martínez Climent, BA.; Hernández-Romero, I.; Liberos Mascarell, A.; Baykaner, T.; Rogers, AJ.; Alhusseini, M.... (2020). Noninvasive Assessment of Complexity of Atrial Fibrillation Correlation With Contact Mapping and Impact of Ablation. 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Comparison of radiofrequency catheterablation of drivers and circumferential pulmonary vein isolation in atrial fibrillation: aAtienza, F., Almendral, J., Ormaetxe, J. M., Moya, Á., Martínez-Alday, J. D., Hernández-Madrid, A., … Jalife, J. (2014). Comparison of Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Drivers and Circumferential Pulmonary Vein Isolation in Atrial Fibrillation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 64(23), 2455-2467. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.09.053Seitz J Bars C Théodore G Beurtheret S Lellouche N Bremondy M Ferracci A Faure JPenaranda G Yamazaki M etal. AF Ablation Guided by Spatiotemporal ElectrogramDispersion Without Pulmonary Vein Isolation: A Wholly Patient-Tailored Approach. J Am CollGuillem MS Climent AM Millet J Arenal Á Fernández-Avilés F Jalife J Atienza FBerenfeld O. Noninvasive localization of maximal frequency sites of atrial fibrillation by bodysurface potential mapping. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2013;6:294-301.Ramirez FD Birnie DH Nair GM Szczotka A Redpath CJ Sadek MM Nery PB. Efficacyand safety of driver-guided catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and metaRamirez, F. D., Birnie, D. H., Nair, G. M., Szczotka, A., Redpath, C. J., Sadek, M. M., & Nery, P. B. (2017). Efficacy and safety of driver-guided catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 28(12), 1371-1378. doi:10.1111/jce.13313Baykaner T Rogers AJ Meckler GL Zaman J Navara R Rodrigo M Alhusseini MKowalewski CAB Viswanathan MN Narayan SM etal. Clinical Implications of Ablation ofDrivers for Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Circ ArrhythmBrachmann J Hummel JD Wilber DJ Sarver AE Rapkin J Shpun S Szili-Torok T.Prospective randomized comparison of rotor ablation vs. conventional ablation for treatment ofVijayakumar R Vasireddi SK Cuculich PS Faddis MN Rudy Y. 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    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum