224 research outputs found

    Site types revisited : comparison of traditional Russian and Finnish classification systems for European Boreal forests

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    doi: 10.1111/avsc.12525Questions Forest classifications are tools used in research, monitoring, and management. In Finland, the Cajanderian forest site type classification is based on the composition of understorey vegetation with the assumption that it reflects in a predictable way the site's productive value. In Russia, the Sukachevian forest classification is similarly based on understorey vegetation but also accounts for tree species, soil wetness, and paludification. Here we ask whether Cajander's and Sukachev's forest types are effectively the same in terms of species composition, site productivity, and biodiversity. Location Boreal forests on mineral soils in Finland and the Russian part of Fennoscandia. Methods We use vegetation and soil survey data to compare the Cajanderian and the Sukachevian systems in terms of the understorey community composition (that is supposed to define them), soil fertility and tree productivity (that they are expected to indicate), and biodiversity (that is of interest for conservation purposes). We create and employ class prediction models to divide Russian and Finnish sites into Cajander's and Sukachev's types, respectively, based on vegetation composition. We perform cross-comparisons between the two systems by non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination and statistical tests. Results Within both systems, the site types formed similar, meaningful gradients in terms of the studied variables. Certain site types from the two systems were largely overlapping in community composition and arranged similarly along the fertility gradient and may thus be considered comparable. Conclusions The Cajanderian and the Sukachevian systems were both developed in the European boreal zone but differ in terms of the exact rules by which site types are determined. Our results show that analogous types between the systems can be identified. These findings aid in endeavours of technology and information transfer between Finnish and Russian forests for the purposes of basic or applied ecological research and forest management.Peer reviewe

    Challenges in QCD matter physics - The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

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    Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (sqrt(s_NN) = 2.7 - 4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials (mu_B > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation-of-state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2022, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter.Comment: 15 pages, 11 figures. Published in European Physical Journal

    Measurement of charm production at central rapidity in proton-proton collisions at s=2.76\sqrt{s} = 2.76 TeV

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    The pTp_{\rm T}-differential production cross sections of the prompt (B feed-down subtracted) charmed mesons D0^0, D+^+, and D+^{*+} in the rapidity range y<0.5|y|<0.5, and for transverse momentum 1<pT<121< p_{\rm T} <12 GeV/cc, were measured in proton-proton collisions at s=2.76\sqrt{s} = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The analysis exploited the hadronic decays D0^0 \rightarrow Kπ\pi, D+^+ \rightarrow Kππ\pi\pi, D+^{*+} \rightarrow D0π^0\pi, and their charge conjugates, and was performed on a Lint=1.1L_{\rm int} = 1.1 nb1^{-1} event sample collected in 2011 with a minimum-bias trigger. The total charm production cross section at s=2.76\sqrt{s} = 2.76 TeV and at 7 TeV was evaluated by extrapolating to the full phase space the pTp_{\rm T}-differential production cross sections at s=2.76\sqrt{s} = 2.76 TeV and our previous measurements at s=7\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV. The results were compared to existing measurements and to perturbative-QCD calculations. The fraction of cdbar D mesons produced in a vector state was also determined.Comment: 20 pages, 5 captioned figures, 4 tables, authors from page 15, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/307

    Ks0^0_sKs0^0_s correlations in pp collisions at s=7\sqrt{s}=7 TeV from the LHC ALICE experiment

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    Identical neutral kaon pair correlations are measured in s=7\sqrt{s}=7 TeV pp collisions in the ALICE experiment. One-dimensional Ks0^0_sKs0^0_s correlation functions in terms of the invariant momentum difference of kaon pairs are formed in two multiplicity and two transverse momentum ranges. The femtoscopic parameters for the radius and correlation strength of the kaon source are extracted. The fi{\rm i}t includes quantum statistics and final-state interactions of the a0_0/f0_0 resonance. Ks0^0_sKs0^0_s correlations show an increase in radius for increasing multiplicity and a slight decrease in radius for increasing transverse mass, mTm_{\rm T}, as seen in ππ\pi\pi correlations in the pp system and in heavy-ion collisions. Transverse mass scaling is observed between the Ks0^0_sKs0^0_s and ππ\pi\pi radii. Also, the fi{\rm i}rst observation is made of the decay of the f2_2'(1525) meson into the Ks0^0_sKs0^0_s channel in pp collisions.Comment: 17 pages, 7 captioned figures, 2 tables, authors from page 12, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/310

    Energy dependence of ϕ meson production at forward rapidity in pp collisions at the LHC

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    The production of ϕ\phi mesons has been studied in pp collisions at LHC energies with the ALICE detector via the dimuon decay channel in the rapidity region 2.5<y<42.5< y < 4. Measurements of the differential cross section d2σ/dydpT\mathrm{d}^2\sigma /\mathrm{d}y \mathrm{d}p_{\mathrm {T}} are presented as a function of the transverse momentum (pTp_{\mathrm {T}}) at the center-of-mass energies s=5.02\sqrt{s}=5.02, 8 and 13 TeV and compared with the ALICE results at midrapidity. The differential cross sections at s=5.02\sqrt{s}=5.02 and 13 TeV are also studied in several rapidity intervals as a function of pTp_{\mathrm {T}}, and as a function of rapidity in three pTp_{\mathrm {T}} intervals. A hardening of the pTp_{\mathrm {T}}-differential cross section with the collision energy is observed, while, for a given energy, pTp_{\mathrm {T}} spectra soften with increasing rapidity and, conversely, rapidity distributions get slightly narrower at increasing pTp_{\mathrm {T}}. The new results, complementing the published measurements at s=2.76\sqrt{s}=2.76