36 research outputs found

    On the Origin of the Initial Mass Function

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    It is usually assumed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) takes a universal form and that there exists a direct mapping between this and the distribution of natal core masses (the core mass function, CMF). The IMF and CMF have been best characterized in the Solar neighborhood. Beyond 500~pc from the Sun, in diverse environments where metallicity varies and massive star feedback may dominate, the IMF has been measured only incompletely and imprecisely, while the CMF has hardly been measured at all. In order to establish if the IMF and CMF are indeed universal and related to each other, it is necessary to: 1) perform multi-wavelength large-scale imaging and spectroscopic surveys of different environments across the Galaxy; 2) require an angular resolution of < 0.1'' in the optical/near-IR for stars and < 5'' in the far-IR for cores; 3) achieve far-IR sensitivities to probe 0.1~Msol cores at 2-3 kpc

    Complications of extraperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in high-risk prostate cancer: A single high-volume center experience

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    IntroductionThe role of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) has been debated over the years, but it appears safe and effective in selected patients. While the outcomes of transperitoneal RARP for high-risk PCa have been already widely investigated, data on the extraperitoneal approach are scarcely available. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate intra- and postoperative complications in a series of patients with high-risk PCa treated by extraperitoneal RARP (eRARP) and pelvic lymph node dissection. The secondary aim is to report oncological and functional outcomes.MethodsData of patients who underwent eRARP for high-risk PCa were prospectively collected from January 2013 to September 2021. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded, as also perioperative, functional, and oncological outcomes. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were classified by employing Intraoperative Adverse Incident Classification by the European Association of Urology and the Clavien–Dindo classification, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate a potential association between clinical and pathological features and the risk of complications.ResultsA total of 108 patients were included. The mean operative time and estimated blood loss were 183.5 ± 44 min and 115.2 ± 72.4 mL, respectively. Only two intraoperative complications were recorded, both grade 3. Early complications were recorded in 15 patients, of which 14 were of minor grade, and 1 was grade IIIa. Late complications were diagnosed in four patients, all of grade III. Body mass index (BMI) &gt; 30 kg/m2, Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) &gt; 20 ng/mL, PSA density &gt;0.15 ng/mL2, and pN1 significantly correlated with a higher rate of overall postoperative complications. Moreover, BMI &gt;30 kg/m2, PSA &gt;20 ng/mL, and pN1 significantly correlated with a higher rate of early complications, while PSA &gt;20 ng/mL, prostate volume &lt;30 mL, and pT3 were significantly associated with a higher risk of late complications. In multivariate regression analysis, PSA &gt;20 ng/mL significantly correlated with overall postoperative complications, while PSA &gt; 20 and pN1 correlated with early complications. Urinary continence and sexual potency were restored in 49.1%, 66.7%, and 79.6% of patients and in 19.1%, 29.9%, and 36.2% of patients at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively.ConclusionseRARP with pelvic lymph node dissection in patients with high-risk PCa is a feasible and safe technique, resulting in only a few intra- and postoperative complications, mostly of low grade

    Robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal reconstruction of urinary diversion by mechanical stapler: prospective evaluation of early and late complications

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    IntroductionRadical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection is the gold standard treatment for non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer and high-risk non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer. For years, the traditional open surgery approach was the only viable option. The widespread of robotic surgery led to its employment also in radical cystectomy to reduce complication rates and improve functional outcomes. Regardless of the type of approach, radical cystectomy is a procedure with high morbidity and not negligible mortality. Data available in the literature show how the use of staplers can offer valid functional outcomes, with an acceptable rate of complications shortening the operative time. The aim of our study was to describe the perioperative outcomes and complications associated with robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with intracorporeal urinary diversion (ICUD) using a mechanical stapler.Material and methodsFrom January 2015 to May 2021, we enrolled patients who underwent RARC with pelvic node dissection and stapled ICUD (ileal conduit or ileal Y-shaped neobladder according to the Perugia ileal neobladder) in our high-volume center. Demographic features, perioperative outcomes and early (≤30 days) and late (&gt;90 days) post-operative complications according to the Clavien–Dindo classification, were recorded for each patient. We also analyzed the potential linear correlation between demographic, pre-operative as well as operative features and the risk of post-operative complications.ResultsOverall, 112 patients who underwent RARC with ICUD were included with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Intracorporeal Perugia ileal neobladder was performed in 74.1% of cases while ileal conduit was performed in 25.9%. The mean operative time, estimated intraoperative blood loss, and LOS were 289.1 ± 59.7 min, 390.6 ± 186.2 ml, and 17.5 ± 9.8 days, respectively. Early minor and major complications accounted for 26.7% and 10.8%, respectively. Overall late complications were 40.2%. The late most common complications were hydronephrosis (11.6%) and urinary tract infections (20.5%). Stone reservoir formation occurred in 2.7% of patients. Major complications occurred in 5.4%. In the sub-analysis, the mean operative time and the estimated blood loss improved significantly from the first 56 procedures to the last ones.ConclusionRARC with ICUD performed by mechanical stapler is a safe and effective technique. Stapled Y-shaped neobladder did not increase the complication rate

    The TOP-SCOPE Survey of Planck Galactic Cold Clumps : Survey Overview and Results of an Exemplar Source, PGCC G26.53+0.17

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    The low dust temperatures (<14 K) of Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) make them ideal targets to probe the initial conditions and very early phase of star formation. "TOP-SCOPE" is a joint survey program targeting similar to 2000 PGCCs in J = 1-0 transitions of CO isotopologues and similar to 1000 PGCCs in 850 mu m continuum emission. The objective of the "TOP-SCOPE" survey and the joint surveys (SMT 10 m, KVN 21 m, and NRO 45 m) is to statistically study the initial conditions occurring during star formation and the evolution of molecular clouds, across a wide range of environments. The observations, data analysis, and example science cases for these surveys are introduced with an exemplar source, PGCC G26.53+0.17 (G26), which is a filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC). The total mass, length, and mean line mass (M/L) of the G26 filament are similar to 6200 M-circle dot, similar to 12 pc, and similar to 500 M-circle dot pc(-1), respectively. Ten massive clumps, including eight starless ones, are found along the filament. The most massive clump as a whole may still be in global collapse, while its denser part seems to be undergoing expansion owing to outflow feedback. The fragmentation in the G26 filament from cloud scale to clump scale is in agreement with gravitational fragmentation of an isothermal, nonmagnetized, and turbulent supported cylinder. A bimodal behavior in dust emissivity spectral index (beta) distribution is found in G26, suggesting grain growth along the filament. The G26 filament may be formed owing to large-scale compression flows evidenced by the temperature and velocity gradients across its natal cloud.Peer reviewe

    VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hi-GAL. inner Milky Way: +68>=l>=70 (Molinari+, 2016)

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    This is the first public data release of high-quality products from the Herschel Hi-GAL survey. The release comes two years after the end of the Herschel observing campaign and is the result of extensive testing of the data reduction and extraction procedures created by members of the Hi-GAL consortium. The complexity and the large variation of the background conditions in all Herschel wavelength bands makes source extraction on the Galactic plane a challenging task. With Hi-GAL DR1, we provide access (http://vialactea.iaps.inaf.it) through a cutout service to high-quality images and compact source catalogues for the Galactic plane at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500um in the region 68°>=l>=-70° and |b|<= 1°
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