128 research outputs found

    Mechanical Design of an Electromagnetic Calorimeter Prototype for a Future Muon Collider

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    Measurement of physics processes at new energy frontier experiments requires excellent spatial, time, and energy resolutions to resolve the structure of collimated high-energy jets. In a future Muon Collider, beam-induced backgrounds (BIB) represent the main challenge in the design of the detectors and of the event reconstruction algorithms. The technology and the design of the calorimeters should be chosen to reduce the effect of the BIB, while keeping good physics performance. Several requirements can be inferred: (i) high granularity to reduce the overlap of BIB particles in the same calorimeter cell; (ii) excellent timing (of the order of 100 ps) to reduce the out-of-time component of the BIB; (iii) longitudinal segmentation to distinguish the signal showers from the fake showers produced by the BIB. Moreover, the calorimeter should operate in a very harsh radiation environment, withstanding yearly a neutron flux of 1014 n1MeV/cm2 and a dose of 100 krad. Our proposal consists of a semi-homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter based on Lead Fluoride Crystals (PbF2) readout by surface-mount UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs): the Crilin calorimeter. In this paper, we report the mechanical design for the development of a small-scale prototype, consisting of 2 layers of 3 Ă— 3 crystals

    Crilin: CRystal calorImeter with Longitudinal InformatioN for a future Muon Collider

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    Being modern tracking systems very precise, jet performance in particle flow-like reconstruction algorithms is usually limited by the calorimeter performance. In particular, a high granularity is required in order to distinguish signal particles from background and to solve the substructures necessary for jet identification. Time of arrival measurements in the calorimeter could play an important role in HL-LHC, since a high number of pile-up collisions is expected, and the timing could be used to assign clusters to the corresponding interaction vertex. In a Muon Collider, the timing could be used to remove signals produced by beam-induced background, asynchronous with respect to the bunch crossing. The calorimeter energy resolution is also fundamental to measure the kinematic properties of jets: a finely segmented calorimeter design should be favored in order to solve the jet substructure. However, this contrasts with the requirement for high timing resolution even for signal events involving low energy deposits, such as in the case of high impulse muons. Our proposed design, the Crilin calorimeter, is a semi-homogeneous calorimeter based on Lead Fluoride (PbF2 ) Crystals readout by surface-mount UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). In this paper, the development of a small prototype consisting of 2 layers of 3 Ă— 3 crystals each is reported along with the relative results

    Crilin: A Semi-Homogeneous Calorimeter for a Future Muon Collider

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    Calorimeters, as other detectors, have to face the increasing performance demands of the new energy frontier experiments. For a future Muon Collider the main challenge is given by the Beam Induced Background that may pose limitations to the physics performance. However, it is possible to reduce the BIB impact by exploiting some of its characteristics by ensuring high granularity, excellent timing, longitudinal segmentation and good energy resolution. The proposed design, the Crilin calorimeter, is an alternative semi-homogeneous ECAL barrel for the Muon Collider based on Lead Fluoride Crystals (PbF2) with a surface-mount UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) readout with an optimized design for a future Muon Collider

    The Mu2e Crystal Calorimeter: An Overview

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    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for the standard model-forbidden, charged lepton flavour-violating conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of an aluminium nucleus. The distinctive signal signature is represented by a mono-energetic electron with an energy near the muon's rest mass. The experiment aims to improve the current single-event sensitivity by four orders of magnitude by means of a high-intensity pulsed muon beam and a high-precision tracking system. The electromagnetic calorimeter complements the tracker by providing high rejection power in muon to electron identification and a seed for track reconstruction while working in vacuum in presence of a 1 T axial magnetic field and in a harsh radiation environment. For 100 MeV electrons, the calorimeter should achieve: (a) a time resolution better than 0.5 ns, (b) an energy resolution <10%, and (c) a position resolution of 1 cm. The calorimeter design consists of two disks, each loaded with 674 undoped CsI crystals read out by two large-area arrays of UV-extended SiPMs and custom analogue and digital electronics. We describe here the status of construction for all calorimeter components and the performance measurements conducted on the large-sized prototype with electron beams and minimum ionizing particles at a cosmic ray test stand. A discussion of the calorimeter's engineering aspects and the on-going assembly is also reported

    Mu2e Crystal Calorimeter Readout Electronics: Design and Characterisation

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    The Mu2e experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory will search for the charged-lepton flavour-violating neutrinoless conversion of negative muons into electrons in the Coulomb field of an Al nucleus. The conversion electron with a monoenergetic 104.967 MeV signature will be identified by a complementary measurement carried out by a high-resolution tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter, improving by four orders of magnitude the current single-event sensitivity. The calorimeter—composed of 1348 pure CsI crystals arranged in two annular disks—has a high granularity, 10% energy resolution and 500 ps timing resolution for 100 MeV electrons. The readout, based on large-area UV-extended SiPMs, features a fully custom readout chain, from the analogue front-end electronics to the digitisation boards. The readout electronics design was validated for operation in vacuum and under magnetic fields. An extensive radiation hardness certification campaign certified the FEE design for doses up to 100 krad and 1012 n1MeVeq/cm2 and for single-event effects. A final vertical slice test on the final readout chain was carried out with cosmic rays on a large-scale calorimeter prototype

    Measurement of parameters of scintillating bars with wavelength-shifting fibres and silicon photomultiplier readout for the SHiP Muon Detector

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    The light yield and the time resolution of different types of 3 m long scintillating bars instrumented with wavelength shifting fibres and read out by different models of silicon photomultipliers have been measured at a test beam at the T9 area at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The results obtained with different configurations are presented. A time resolution better than 800 ps, constant along the bar length within 20%, and a light yield of 140 (70) photo-electrons are obtained for bars 3 m long, 4.5 (5) cm wide and 2 (0.7) cm thick. These results nicely match the requirements for the Muon Detector of the SHiP experiment

    A Method Based on Muon System to Monitor LHCb Luminosity

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    LHCb is one of the four main experiments running at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Since 2010, it has been collecting data to study the Physics of b and c quarks. For the past three years, the experimental apparatus underwent significant upgrades to be ready for a new round of data collection, expected to start in June 2022. The new apparatus is designed to be able to run at an instantaneous luminosity five times larger than the previous one, which was 2.0&times;1032 cm&minus;2s&minus;1, and the whole detector readout will be at a 40 MHz rate. It is worth noticing that the luminosity at the LHCb interaction point, for the characteristics of the detector, needs to be reduced with respect to the luminosity provided by LHC. Major changes in the different subdetectors were required, along with complete modifications of the trigger schemes. The LHCb collaboration is developing and studying different methods for the on-line measurement of luminosity at the LHCb impact point, crucial for the monitoring of correct machine operation and for most experimental physics studies. The present work describes a procedure based on hit counting in the muon detector for an on-line luminosity monitor. The performance and the precision achieved with this method in tests carried out on past data collected are presented, together with proposals for future upgrades

    A method based on muon system to monitor LHCb luminosity

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    LHCb is one of the four main experiments running at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Since 2010, it has been collecting data to study the Physics of b and c quarks. For the past three years, the experimental apparatus underwent significant upgrades to be ready for a new round of data collection, expected to start in June 2022. The new apparatus is designed to be able to run at an instantaneous luminosity five times larger than the previous one, which was 2.0 x 10(32) cm(-2) s(-1), and the whole detector readout will be at a 40 MHz rate. It is worth noticing that the luminosity at the LHCb interaction point, for the characteristics of the detector, needs to be reduced with respect to the luminosity provided by LHC. Major changes in the different subdetectors were required, along with complete modifications of the trigger schemes. The LHCb collaboration is developing and studying different methods for the on-line measurement of luminosity at the LHCb impact point, crucial for the monitoring of correct machine operation and for most experimental physics studies. The present work describes a procedure based on hit counting in the muon detector for an on-line luminosity monitor. The performance and the precision achieved with this method in tests carried out on past data collected are presented, together with proposals for future upgrades

    The beam and detector of the NA62 experiment at CERN

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    NA62 is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS dedicated to measurements of rare kaon decays. Such measurements, like the branching fraction of the K(+) → π(+) ν bar nu decay, have the potential to bring significant insights into new physics processes when comparison is made with precise theoretical predictions. For this purpose, innovative techniques have been developed, in particular, in the domain of low-mass tracking devices. Detector construction spanned several years from 2009 to 2014. The collaboration started detector commissioning in 2014 and will collect data until the end of 2018. The beam line and detector components are described together with their early performance obtained from 2014 and 2015 data.NA62 is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS dedicated to measurements of rare kaon decays. Such measurements, like the branching fraction of the K+→π+ννˉK^{+} \rightarrow \pi^{+} \nu \bar\nu decay, have the potential to bring significant insights into new physics processes when comparison is made with precise theoretical predictions. For this purpose, innovative techniques have been developed, in particular, in the domain of low-mass tracking devices. Detector construction spanned several years from 2009 to 2014. The collaboration started detector commissioning in 2014 and will collect data until the end of 2018. The beam line and detector components are described together with their early performance obtained from 2014 and 2015 data

    Expression of Interest for a Phase-II LHCb Upgrade: Opportunities in flavour physics, and beyond, in the HL-LHC era

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    https://cds.cern.ch/record/224431
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