1,950 research outputs found

    Characterization of physiochemical and nutrient profiles in canola feedstocks and co-products from bio-oil processing: impacted by source origin

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    Objective The objective of this study was to characterize physiochemical and nutrient profiles of feedstock and co-products from canola bio-oil processing that were impacted by source origin. The feedstocks and co-products (mash, pellet) were randomly collected from five different bio-oil processing plants with five different batches of samples in each bio-processing plant in Canada (CA) and China (CH). Methods The detailed chemical composition, energy profile, total digestible nutrient (TDN), protein and carbohydrate subfractions, and their degradation and digestion (CNCPS6.5) were determined. Results The results showed that TDN1x was similar in meals between CA and CH. CH meals and feedstock had higher, truly digestible crude protein (tdCP) and neutral detergent fiber (tdNDF) than CA while CA had higher truly digestible non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNFC). The metabolizable energy (ME3x), net energy (NELp3x, NEm3x, and NEg3x) were similar in meals between CA and CH. No differences were observed in energy profile of seeds between CA and CH. The protein and carbohydrate subfractions of seeds within CH were similar. The results also showed that pelleting of meals affected protein sub-fractionation of CA meals, except rapidly degradable fractions (PB1), rumen degradable (RDPB1) and undegrdable PB1 (RUPB1), and intestinal digestible PB1 (DIGPB1). Canola meals were different in the soluble (PA2) and slowly degradable fractions (PB2) between CA and CH. The carbohydrate fractions of intermediately degradable fraction (CB2), slowly degradable fraction (CB3), and undegradable fraction (CC) were different among CH meals. CH presented higher soluble carbohydrate (CA4) and lower CB2, and CC than CA meals. Conclusion The results indicated that although the seeds were similar within and between CA and CH, either oil-extraction process or meal pelleting seemed to have generated significantly different aspects in physiochemical and nutrient profiles in the meals. Nutritionists and producers need to regularly check nutritional value of meal mash and pellets for precision feeding

    The JAK-STAT Pathway Controls Plasmodium vivax Load in Early Stages of Anopheles aquasalis Infection

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    Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the transcription factor Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT), the regulatory Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT (PIAS) and the Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (NOS) were characterized. Expression of STAT and PIAS was higher in males than females and in eggs and first instar larvae when compared to larvae and pupae. RNA levels for STAT and PIAS increased 24 and 36 hours (h) after P. vivax challenge. NOS transcription increased 36 h post infection (hpi) while this protein was already detected in some midgut epithelial cells 24 hpi. Imunocytochemistry experiments using specific antibodies showed that in non-infected insects STAT and PIAS were found mostly in the fat body, while in infected mosquitoes the proteins were found in other body tissues. The knockdown of STAT by RNAi increased the number of oocysts in the midgut of A. aquasalis. This is the first clear evidence for the involvement of a specific immune pathway in the interaction of the Brazilian malaria vector A. aquasalis with P. vivax, delineating a potential target for the future development of disease controlling strategies

    LRR-RLK family from two Citrus species: Genome-wide identification and evolutionary aspects

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    Background: Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) represent the largest subfamily of plant RLKs. The functions of most LRR-RLKs have remained undiscovered, and a few that have been experimentally characterized have been shown to have important roles in growth and development as well as in defense responses. Although RLK subfamilies have been previously studied in many plants, no comprehensive study has been performed on this gene family in Citrus species, which have high economic importance and are frequent targets for emerging pathogens. In this study, we performed in silico analysis to identify and classify LRR-RLK homologues in the predicted proteomes of Citrus clementina (clementine) and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). In addition, we used large-scale phylogenetic approaches to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the LRR-RLKs and further narrowed the analysis to the LRR-XII group, which contains several previously described cell surface immune receptors. Results: We built integrative protein signature databases for Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis using all predicted protein sequences obtained from whole genomes. A total of 300 and 297 proteins were identified as LRR-RLKs in C. clementina and C. sinensis, respectively. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were estimated using Arabidopsis LRR-RLK as a template and they allowed us to classify Citrus LRR- 34 RLKs into 16 groups. The LRR-XII group showed a remarkable expansion, containing approximately 150 paralogs encoded in each Citrus genome. Phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated the existence of two distinct LRR-XII clades, each one constituted mainly by RD and non-RD kinases. We identified 68 orthologous pairs from the C. clementina and C. sinensis LRR-XII genes. In addition, among the paralogs, we identified a subset of 78 and 62 clustered genes probably derived from tandem duplication events in the genomes of C. clementina and C. sinensis, respectively. Conclusions: This work provided the first comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the LRR-RLKs in Citrus. A large expansion of LRR-XII in Citrus genomes suggests that it might play a key role in adaptive responses in host-pathogen co-evolution, related to the perennial life cycle and domestication of the citrus crop species

    A“Dirty” Footprint: Macroinvertebrate diversity in Amazonian Anthropic Soils

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    International audienceAmazonian rainforests, once thought to be pristine wilderness, are increasingly known to have been widely inhabited, modified, and managed prior to European arrival, by human populations with diverse cultural backgrounds. Amazonian Dark Earths (ADEs) are fertile soils found throughout the Amazon Basin, created by pre-Columbian societies with sedentary habits. Much is known about the chemistry of these soils, yet their zoology has been neglected. Hence, we characterized soil fertility, macroinvertebrate communities, and their activity at nine archeological sites in three Amazonian regions in ADEs and adjacent reference soils under native forest (young and old) and agricultural systems. We found 673 morphospecies and, despite similar richness in ADEs (385 spp.) and reference soils (399 spp.), we identified a tenacious pre-Columbian footprint, with 49% of morphospecies found exclusively in ADEs. Termite and total macroinvertebrate abundance were higher in reference soils, while soil fertility and macroinvertebrate activity were higher in the ADEs, and associated with larger earthworm quantities and biomass. We show that ADE habitats have a unique pool of species, but that modern land use of ADEs decreases their populations, diversity, and contributions to soil functioning. These findings support the idea that humans created and sustained high-fertility ecosystems that persist today, altering biodiversity patterns in Amazonia

    Search for massive resonances in dijet systems containing jets tagged as W or Z boson decays in pp collisions at √s=8 TeV

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    Performance of the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC

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    ALICE is the heavy-ion experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The experiment continuously took data during the first physics campaign of the machine from fall 2009 until early 2013, using proton and lead-ion beams. In this paper we describe the running environment and the data handling procedures, and discuss the performance of the ALICE detectors and analysis methods for various physics observables

    Search for gluino mediated bottom- and top-squark production in multijet final states in pp collisions at 8 TeV