13 research outputs found

    Can a negative representation of refugees in social media lead to compassion fatigue? An analysis of the perspectives of a sample of Syrian refugees in Jordan and Turkey

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    Negative, tragic, traumatic and suffering representations continue to dominate the discussions and content on social media in the stories and content related to Syrian refugees. The public, while browsing social media, finds that this representation is the dominant one that dominates the image of refugees. Thus, there is a potential risk that the public’s compassion will be negatively affected after repeated exposure to the dominant representation in light of the inability to put an end to that situation. This study discusses the perspectives of Syrian refugees living in Jordan and Turkey on whether they feel such repeated negative and tragic content about their stories and news on social media could affect the empathy of the audience in hosting communities with them, especially since social media is an open-source platform that all people at any time and from any place can post, re-share, comment and create content by adding texts, photos and videos, not like traditional media, which are controlled more than social media platforms for open participatory content. This study aims to explore how a vulnerable population, such as Syrian refugees in Istanbul and Amman, sees the effect of negative representation on themselves and their image in the hosting communities and does not aim to examine or offer any conclusion as to whether the public in Jordan and Turkey have experienced compassion fatigue. This study provides and extracts some useful insights, but proves no hypotheses or conclusive evidence regarding the occurrence of compassion fatigue in the public; thus, the study opens the door for the debate on the role that social media plays as a source of compassion fatigue among citizens towards refugees, mainly when they are repeatedly exposed to such negative stories and content, as well as calls for an in-depth and extensive study on the topic from the point of view of the public and citizens in the hosting countries, after examining, understanding and analyzing the opinions and their dimensions of the sample of refugees in this study

    Understanding social media dependency, and uses and gratifications as a communication system in the migration era: Syrian refugees in host countries as a case study

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    Through the theoretical frameworks of the media system dependency model and uses and gratifications theory, this study examined the uses of social media by Syrian refugees in Jordan and Turkey. A mixed-methods approach was used to increase the credibility and validity of the study’s findings by combining a qualitative method with quantitative data. The findings show that there were some factors that affected the Syrian refugees’ use of social media before seeking refuge in Jordan and Turkey, which were mainly its ban due to the regime’s censorship and a bad Internet connection due to the bad infrastructure. The absence of these two factors led to an increase in their social media dependency after seeking refuge. There are variances in which social media sites Syrian refugees use the most and why. The majority relied on Facebook for various reasons, and this dependency had varying repercussions on individuals. Furthermore, many immigrants were acquainted with new platforms, implying that refugees became social-media-literate and participated in the updates of the new platforms, even if such sites were not well known to the general public. The Syrian refugees’ dependency on social media varies from person to person due to differences in personal goals, social status, locations, living characteristics, and easy access to the Internet. Furthermore, this dependency on social media has different effects on them according to the media system dependency model. The refugees become increasingly dependent on social media to satisfy their needs and, because of that, social media dependency will become more important in their lives and will increase its influence and effects on them. Furthermore, the study found that the Syrian refugees depended on social media for various gratifications, such as educational, work, and business; information access; cultural and social aspects; connecting with networks and families; establishing friendships; learning new skills; self-expression; making business; and finding work, in addition to reaching routes and contacting smugglers to help them leave the country

    Refugee Journalist Phenomenon as a Consequence of Migration and Refugee Crises: The Role of Social Media in Transferring Refugees’ Role from “Has Been Affected” to “Has Affected”

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    This study examines the impact of using social media by Syrian refugees, focusing on the shift from receiving messages to sharing content and news related to the Syrian crisis. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, the findings indicate that social media has become a more accessible and affordable medium of communication for Syrian refugees, both during and after seeking refuge. The study highlights the transformation of Syrian citizens from citizens who are not allowed to use the internet and social media to "refugee journalists" by being affected by social media. Social media use among Syrian activists or Syrian refugee journalists has contributed to the emergence of the "refugee journalist" phenomenon, which helps convey opinions, voices, and suffering to the world. However, the findings also highlight the negative effects of the "refugee journalist" phenomenon on Syrian refugees, citizens, and activists. The findings also indicate the potential moral violations and lack of integrity and reliability standards in the publishing of activists' stories, leading to distortion of facts and misleading audiences

    Positive Determinism of Twitter usage development in crisis communication: Rescue and relief efforts after the 6 February 2023 earthquake in Turkiye as a case study

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    This study examined the impact of Twitter usage development in crisis communication in Türkiye during the 6 February 2023 by showing the development of its use during the 1999 Izmit and 2000 Izmir earthquakes. As well as its usage in the 48 h following the 2023 earthquake. It found that Twitter’s positive determinism has evolved over time from gathering information to actively supporting victims’ rescue. Twitter was crucial for finding casualties and providing onthe-ground updates during critical moments, confirming the media’s surveillance function. During the first 48 h of the 2023 earthquake, Twitter significantly affected the rescue and relief activities, enabling individuals trapped beneath the debris to contact, seek, and receive assistance. Twitter’s importance has increased in political communication by opinion leaders and government authorities, and President Erdo ˘gan’s engagement via Twitter was critical in expressing solidarity and coordinating rescue and relief efforts. This study concluded that Twitter has become an indispensable tool for obtaining and disseminating information, as well as aiding and identifying individuals in need. It was widely used by official accounts, informational accounts, and citizens, and effectively aiding rescue and relief efforts, especially in the first 48 h after the disaster

    How university students evaluate the role of social media in political polarization: Perspectives of a sample of Turkish undergraduate and graduate students

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    This study aimed to find out if there is a relationship between social media and political polarization in Türkiye from the perspective of Turkish students. To reach this aim, the needed data were collected through qualitative and quantitative approaches. A total of 303 valid questionnaires were analyzed. The sample consisted of university Turkish students across undergraduate, masters, and PhD levels in Türkiye aged between 18 and 50+. As well, an online focus group discussion with six Turkish students from different universities and education levels was conducted to gain a more in-depth understanding of the study’s problem. The results of the study showed that the perspectives of the Turkish students were that social media had a weak-to-moderate effect on political polarization in Türkiye. Furthermore, the results indicated that the studied sample of the Turkish students does not rely on social media platforms to obtain political news, and most of them do not follow political leaders on social media. Moreover, communication platforms did not encourage many Turkish students to express themselves, which is an indication that social media algorithms have contributed to a medium degree in creating filter bubbles through the content they suggest to users. Results have also shown that Turkish students are afraid that their posts and comments are being censored

    Sosyal medya ve mülteci krizi: Sosyal medyanın Ürdün ve Türkiye’de yaşayan Suriyeli mülteciler üzerindeki etkisi

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    Suriye’deki iç savaştan kaçarak mülteci konumuna düşen gençler ara-sında teknolojiyi yoğun ve etkili bir şekilde kullanan yüksek oranda genç bir nüfus bulunmaktadır ve bu genç nüfus sayesinde mülteciler zor durum¬da kaldıklarında yardım için Facebook’ta kurulan sayfalardan birbirleriyle haberleşebilmekte, hatta bu sayfalardan, zorlu yolculukları için ne tür çadır almaları gerektiği, hangi yolun daha güvenli olduğu gibi bilgileri öğrenip birbirleriyle paylaşabilmektedir. Sosyal medya sayesinde mültecilere yardım etmek için yol ve yöntem-ler de geliştirilmekte, gönüllülerin oluşturduğu ağlar, ailelerin birbirlerini bulmalarında yardımcı olmaktadır. Facebook, Twitter, Youtube ve Instagram gibi sosyal medya ortamları önemli bir medya platformu olarak Suriye içinden gelen tüm bilgileri dünyaya aktarmakta, kolektif görüşün oluşma¬sına hizmet etmekte, geleneksel medyaya içerik sağlamada önemli bir işlev görmektedir..

    Mülteci krizi sırasında dijital iletişim aracı olarak sosyal medya kullanımı: Türkiye'deki Suriyeli mülteciler üzerinden bir araştırma

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    Kriz iletişimi, yıkıcı bir olay sırasında insanların ve grupların birbirleriy- le iletişim kurabilecekleri stratejik bir yaklaşımdır. Bir kriz meydana geldiğinde proaktif, hızlı ve ayrıntılı iletişim kritik önem taşmaktadır. Kriz iletişimi, bir meydan okuma veya tehditle karşı karşıya kalan bir bireyi veya grubu korumak ve savunmakla ilgilidir (Barrera, 2014). Kriz terimi, "yönetimin dikkatle ilgilenmesini gerektiren ciddi olaylar için ayrılmalıdır" (Coombs ve Holladay, 2010). Kriz yönetimi, "krizlerle mücadele etmek ve verilen fiili zararları azaltmak için tasarlanmış bir dizi faktör" olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Etkili kriz yönetimi, kriz sonucunda insanların aldığı zarar miktarını büyük ölçüde azaltma ve hatta bir olayın krize dönüşmesini önleme potansiyeline sahiptir..

    Xenophobia and Hate Speech towards Refugees on Social Media: Reinforcing Causes, Negative Effects, Defense and Response Mechanisms against That Speech

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    This study aims to recognize the possible role of social media in forming xenophobia and hate speech against Syrian refugees and to understand the reinforcing causes and negative effects of that speech on the refugees, as well as the refugees’ response mechanisms against that speech. A mixed approach was used in this study. In addition to a questionnaire tool that was used to collect data, focus group discussions were conducted to support the obtained data. The study used a statistically representative sample of Syrian refugees who live in Turkey and Jordan. The participants see the negative representation of their image via social media as leading to hatred towards them. The findings showed that there are some causes that reinforce xenophobic speech, such as otherization and demonization of refugees, by the negative representation and spreading of fake news on social media, which are published continuously. Moreover, gatekeepers have a role in promoting negative representation by approving xenophobic speech transmission without filtering or ethical control. The results also showed that the negative representation containing hate speech contributes to more negative effects on the refugees, such as psychological effects, as a sense of hatred towards refugees is created in the host country, and the effect of changing the feelings of the public from empathy to compassion fatigue concluding to hatred towards those refugees. Furthermore, the results showed that the Syrian refugees follow different defense mechanisms against xenophobia and hate speech against them published and circulated through social media platforms. The participants were divided into two main categories; the first one is those who prefer replying, not being silent, and defending the refugees, and the second category is those who prefer keeping silent. The first category of refugees stated that they do not accept keeping silent and they prefer to reply using logical, emotional, or defensive and offensive ways to bad comments against Syrian refugees in general. While the second category claimed that either they do not have time to reply or they sometimes agree that it was only a reaction to the behavior of some individual refugees. Some of them explained that they are afraid of being subjected to more bad comments and negative reactions against them. When they encounter aggressive comments and see that such views represent the majority, they prefer to keep silent to avoid being attacked. This is understood within the framework of the spiral of silence theory, where refugees hide their opinions, views, and preferences when they think that they fall within a minority group. They fear social isolation through social media

    Can a Negative Representation of Refugees in Social Media Lead to Compassion Fatigue? An Analysis of the Perspectives of a Sample of Syrian Refugees in Jordan and Turkey

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    Negative, tragic, traumatic and suffering representations continue to dominate the discussions and content on social media in the stories and content related to Syrian refugees. The public, while browsing social media, finds that this representation is the dominant one that dominates the image of refugees. Thus, there is a potential risk that the public’s compassion will be negatively affected after repeated exposure to the dominant representation in light of the inability to put an end to that situation. This study discusses the perspectives of Syrian refugees living in Jordan and Turkey on whether they feel such repeated negative and tragic content about their stories and news on social media could affect the empathy of the audience in hosting communities with them, especially since social media is an open-source platform that all people at any time and from any place can post, re-share, comment and create content by adding texts, photos and videos, not like traditional media, which are controlled more than social media platforms for open participatory content. This study aims to explore how a vulnerable population, such as Syrian refugees in Istanbul and Amman, sees the effect of negative representation on themselves and their image in the hosting communities and does not aim to examine or offer any conclusion as to whether the public in Jordan and Turkey have experienced compassion fatigue. This study provides and extracts some useful insights, but proves no hypotheses or conclusive evidence regarding the occurrence of compassion fatigue in the public; thus, the study opens the door for the debate on the role that social media plays as a source of compassion fatigue among citizens towards refugees, mainly when they are repeatedly exposed to such negative stories and content, as well as calls for an in-depth and extensive study on the topic from the point of view of the public and citizens in the hosting countries, after examining, understanding and analyzing the opinions and their dimensions of the sample of refugees in this study

    Devru's-sahafeti'l-matbu'a ve'l-ilkitroniyye fi'd-difa' an kadaya hukuki'l-İnsan min vicheti nazari'l-muvatini'l-Ürdüni

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    The doctrine of human rights has gained increasing attention and respectability around the world. Electronic and print media can also play their roles by highlighting the violations of human rights, raising awareness, and influencing legislations and resolutions. This study is an attempt at throwing light on this role of media in the context of Jordan. The researcher selected a random sample of (1243) people, 18 years of age and above, of the (5.1) million people, the total population of Jordan according to the general census carried out by Population and Housing Census at the Department of Statistics (DoS) in October 2004. Findings showed significant differences in the role of print and electronic media. The role of electronic media was found to be better than that of print media. Jordanian media can improve its performance by having greater freedom and by focusing on the uses and gratification of recipients. The study found out that; it is very important to train journalists and increase their awareness more about the laws of human rights which leads to enhance the role of media in addressing human rights issues, and there is a need to increase dedication to human rights issues individually and collectively. In addition to, encourage more studies and field researches on the role of media in the defense of in human rights in Jordan.هدفت الدراسة إلى الوقوف على دور الصحافة الأردنية سواء أكانت مطبوعة أم إلكترونية في الدفاع عن حقوق الإنسان، وانطلقت الدراسة من التساؤل: ما اتجاهات المواطن الأردني نحو معالجة الصحافة الأردنية لقضايا حقوق الإنسان؟ وهل توجد فروق في اتجاهات المواطن الأردني نحو كفاءة الصحافة المطبوعة والإلكترونية في معالجة قضايا حقوق الإنسان في الأردن؟ في استطلاعات الرأي العام والأبحاث المسحية الأخرى: كالوقوف واتبعت الدراسة المنهج الوصفي الذي يعد أكثر المناهج شيوعاً على آراء فئة معينة حول قضية ما. واعتمدت الاستبيان الذي تم تصميمه في ضوء أهداف الدراسة ومشكلتها، كما تم أخذ عينة عشوائية بلغ حجم مجتمعها (1243) شخص من عمر 18 سنة فما فوق، أما مجتمع الدراسة فتمثل بالمواطنين الأردنيين في جميع المحافظات الأردنية البالغ عددهم (5.1) مليون نسمة وفقا للتعداد السكاني العام الذي قامت به دائرة الإحصاءات العامة تشرين الأول 2004. وبينت الدراسة أن معظم أفراد العينة يتابعون الصحافة الالكترونية في القضايا والمواضيع المتعلقة بحقوق الإنسان أكثر من الصحافة المطبوعة؛ وذلك لأسباب ترتبط بتوفرها وسهولة الوصول إليها في أي وقت وأي مكان، كما أشارت الدراسة إلى أن المواطنين بشكل عام يرون أن تأثير الصحافة الإلكترونية أكبر من الصحافة المطبوعة في مجال تحقيق أثر إيجابي لأصحاب القضايا أو الفائدة للصالح العام كتغيير قرار أو قانون كنتيجة لتغطية الصحافة المطبوعة لقضايا حقوق الإنسان. وأوصت الدراسة بضرورة زيادة الوعي لدى الصحافيين والإعلاميين بشكل أكبر بالقوانين والتشريعات المتعلقة بحقوق الإنسان، والعمل على حثهم وتحفيزهم لمتابعة قضايا حقوق الإنسان، كما أوصت بالعمل على زيادة المساحة المخصصة لقضايا حقوق الإنسان سواء أكانت قضايا فردية أم جماعية، وتشجيع إجراء المزيد من الأبحاث والدراسات حول دور الصحافة والإعلام في تعزيز حقوق الإنسان في الأرد
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