4,393 research outputs found

    Theory and practice of microlensing lightcurves around fold singularities

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    Among all galactic microlensing events, those involving a passage of the observed source star over the caustic created by a binary lens are particularly useful in providing information about stellar atmospheres, the dynamics of stellar populations in our own and neighbouring galaxies, and the statistical properties of stellar and sub-stellar binaries. This paper presents a comprehensive guide for modelling and interpreting the lightcurves obtained in events involving fold-caustic crossings. A new general, consistent, and optimal choice of parameters provides a deep understanding of the involved features, avoids numerical difficulties and minimizes correlations between model parameters. While the photometric data of a microlensing event around a caustic crossing itself do not provide constraints on the characteristics of the underlying binary lens and does not allow predictions of the behaviour of other regions of the lightcurve, vital constraints can be obtained in an efficient way if these are combined with a few simple characteristics of data outside the caustic crossings. A corresponding algorithm containing some improvements over an earlier approach which takes into account multi-site observations is presented and discussed in detail together with the arising parameter constraints paying special attention to the role of source and background fluxes.Comment: 19 pages with 7 EPS figures embedded, LaTeX2e using mn2e.cls. Final version, tables clarifying meaning and constraints on parameters added. This is a preprint of an Article accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, (C) 2004 The Royal Astronomical Societ

    Microlensing of circumstellar envelopes III. Line profiles from stellar winds in homologous expansion

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    This paper examines line profile evolution due to the linear expansion of circumstellar material obsverved during a microlensing event. This work extends our previous papers on emission line profile evolution from radial and azimuthal flow during point mass lens events and fold caustic crossings. Both "flavours" of microlensing were shown to provide effective diagnostics of bulk motion in circumstellar envelopes. In this work a different genre of flow is studied, namely linear homologous expansion, for both point mass lenses and fold caustic crossings. Linear expansion is of particular relevance to the effects of microlensing on supernovae at cosmological distances. We derive line profiles and equivalent widths for the illustrative cases of pure resonance and pure recombination lines, modelled under the Sobolev approximation. The efficacy of microlensing as a diagnostic probe of the stellar environs is demonstrated and discussed

    1318 New Variable Stars in a 0.25 Square Degree Region of the Galactic Plane

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    We have conducted a deep photometric survey of a 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg area of the Galactic Plane using the WFI instrument on the 2.2-m ESO telescope on La Silla, Chile. The dataset comprises a total of 267 R-band images, 204 from a 16 day observation run in 2005, supplemented by 63 images from a six week period in 2002. Our reduction employed the new numerical kernel difference image analysis method as implemented in the PYSIS3 code and resulted in more than 500,000 lightcurves of stars down to a magnitude limit of R ~ 24.5. A search for variable stars resulted in the detection of 1318 variables of different types. 1011 of these are eclipsing or contact binary stars. A number of the contact binaries have low mass-ratios and several of the detached binaries appear to have low-mass components. Three candidate contact binaries have periods at the known cut off including two with periods lower than any previously published. Also identified are 3 possible pre-main sequence detached eclipsing binaries.Comment: 54 pages, 17 figures, 11 tables, accepted by A&A. Photometry will be available through CD

    Lens binarity vs limb darkening in close-impact galactic microlensing events

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    Although point caustics harbour a larger potential for measuring the brightness profile of stars during the course of a microlensing event than (line-shaped) fold caustics, the effect of lens binarity significantly limits the achievable accuracy. Therefore, corresponding close-impact events make a less favourable case for limb-darkening measurements than those events that involve fold-caustic passages, from which precision measurements can easily and routinely be obtained. Examples involving later Bulge giants indicate that a ~ 10 % misestimate on the limb-darkening coefficient can result with the assumption of a single-lens model that looks acceptable, unless the precision of the photometric measurements is pushed below the 1 %-level even for these favourable targets. In contrast, measurement uncertainties on the proper motion between lens and source are dominated by the assessment of the angular radius of the source star and remain practically unaffected by lens binarity. Rather than judging the goodness-of-fit by means of a chi^2 test only, run tests provide useful additional information that can lead to the rejection of models and the detection of lens binarity in close-impact microlensing events.Comment: 11 pages in LaTeX2e format, uses 'mn2e.cls', 6 figures in 10 EPS-files embedded. Submitted to MNRA

    Probing the atmosphere of the bulge G5III star OGLE-2002-BUL-069 by analysis of microlense H alpha line

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    We discuss high-resolution, time-resolved spectra of the caustic exit of the binary microlensing event OGLE 2002-BUL-69 obtained with UVES on the VLT. The source star is a G5III giant in the Galactic Bulge. During such events, the source star is highly magnified, and a strong differential magnification around the caustic resolves its surface. Using an appropriate model stellar atmosphere generated by the NextGEN code we obtained a model light curve for the caustic exit and compared it with a dense set of photometric observations obtained by the PLANET microlensing follow up network. We further compared predicted variations in the H alpha equivalent width with those measured from our spectra. While the model and observations agree in the gross features, there are discrepancies suggesting shortcomings in the model, particularly for the H alpha line core, where we have detected amplified emission from the stellar chromosphere as the source star's trailing limb exited the caustic. This achievement became possible by the provision of the OGLE-III Early Warning System, a network of small telescopes capable of nearly-continuous round-the-clock photometric monitoring, on-line data reduction, daily near-real-time modelling in order to predict caustic crossing parameters, and a fast and efficient response of a 8m-class telescope to a ``Target-Of-Opportunity'' observation request.Comment: 4 pages Latex, 3 figures, accepted for publication to astronomy and astrophysics letter

    Limb-darkening measurements for a cool red giant in microlensing event OGLE 2004-BLG-482

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    Aims: We present a detailed analysis of OGLE 2004-BLG-482, a relatively high-magnification single-lens microlensing event which exhibits clear extended-source effects. These events are relatively rare, but they potentially contain unique information on the stellar atmosphere properties of their source star, as shown in this study. Methods: Our dense photometric coverage of the overall light curve and a proper microlensing modelling allow us to derive measurements of the OGLE 2004-BLG-482 source star's linear limb-darkening coefficients in three bands, including standard Johnson-Cousins I and R, as well as in a broad clear filter. In particular, we discuss in detail the problems of multi-band and multi-site modelling on the expected precision of our results. We also obtained high-resolution UVES spectra as part of a ToO programme at ESO VLT from which we derive the source star's precise fundamental parameters. Results: From the high-resolution UVES spectra, we find that OGLE 2004-BLG-482's source star is a red giant of MK type a bit later than M3, with Teff = 3667 +/- 150 K, log g = 2.1 +/- 1.0 and an assumed solar metallicity. This is confirmed by an OGLE calibrated colour-magnitude diagram. We then obtain from a detailed microlensing modelling of the light curve linear limb-darkening coefficients that we compare to model-atmosphere predictions available in the literature, and find a very good agreement for the I and R bands. In addition, we perform a similar analysis using an alternative description of limb darkening based on a principal component analysis of ATLAS limb-darkening profiles, and also find a very good agreement between measurements and model predictions.Comment: Accepted in A&
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