34 research outputs found

    Machine Learning Applications in Studying Mental Health Among Immigrants and Racial and Ethnic Minorities: A Systematic Review

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    Background: The use of machine learning (ML) in mental health (MH) research is increasing, especially as new, more complex data types become available to analyze. By systematically examining the published literature, this review aims to uncover potential gaps in the current use of ML to study MH in vulnerable populations of immigrants, refugees, migrants, and racial and ethnic minorities. Methods: In this systematic review, we queried Google Scholar for ML-related terms, MH-related terms, and a population of a focus search term strung together with Boolean operators. Backward reference searching was also conducted. Included peer-reviewed studies reported using a method or application of ML in an MH context and focused on the populations of interest. We did not have date cutoffs. Publications were excluded if they were narrative or did not exclusively focus on a minority population from the respective country. Data including study context, the focus of mental healthcare, sample, data type, type of ML algorithm used, and algorithm performance was extracted from each. Results: Our search strategies resulted in 67,410 listed articles from Google Scholar. Ultimately, 12 were included. All the articles were published within the last 6 years, and half of them studied populations within the US. Most reviewed studies used supervised learning to explain or predict MH outcomes. Some publications used up to 16 models to determine the best predictive power. Almost half of the included publications did not discuss their cross-validation method. Conclusions: The included studies provide proof-of-concept for the potential use of ML algorithms to address MH concerns in these special populations, few as they may be. Our systematic review finds that the clinical application of these models for classifying and predicting MH disorders is still under development

    Identifying the influential spreaders in multilayer interactions of online social networks

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    Online social networks (OSNs) portray a multi-layer of interactions through which users become a friend, information is propagated, ideas are shared, and interaction is constructed within an OSN. Identifying the most influential spreaders in a network is a significant step towards improving the use of existing resources to speed up the spread of information for application such as viral marketing or hindering the spread of information for application like virus blocking and rumor restraint. Users communications facilitated by OSNs could confront the temporal and spatial limitations of traditional communications in an exceptional way, thereby presenting new layers of social interactions, which coincides and collaborates with current interaction layers to redefine the multiplex OSN. In this paper, the effects of different topological network structure on influential spreaders identification are investigated. The results analysis concluded that improving the accuracy of influential spreaders identification in OSNs is not only by improving identification algorithms but also by developing a network topology that represents the information diffusion well. Moreover, in this paper a topological representation for an OSN is proposed which takes into accounts both multilayers interactions as well as overlaying links as weight. The measurement results are found to be more reliable when the identification algorithms are applied to proposed topological representation compared when these algorithms are applied to single layer representations

    Recent advances in mobile touch screen security authentication methods: a systematic literature review

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    The security of the smartphone touch screen has attracted considerable attention from academics as well as industry and security experts. The maximum security of the mobile phone touch screen is necessary to protect the user’s stored information in the event of loss. Previous reviews in this research domain have focused primarily on biometrics and graphical passwords while leaving out PIN, gesture/pattern and others. In this paper, we present a comprehensive literature review of the recent advances made in mobile touch screen authentication techniques covering PIN, pattern/gesture, biometrics, graphical password and others. A new comprehensive taxonomy of the various multiple class authentication techniques is presented in order to expand the existing taxonomies on single class authentication techniques. The review reveals that the most recent studies that propose new techniques for providing maximum security to smartphone touch screen reveal multi-objective optimization problems. In addition, open research problems and promising future research directions are presented in the paper. Expert researchers can benefit from the review by gaining new insights into touch screen cyber security, and novice researchers may use this paper as a starting point of their inquir

    Effective methods to detect cyberbullying and influential spreaders in an online social network / Mohammed Ali Derhem Al Garadi

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    Online social networks (OSNs) have become massively popular. The characteristics of OSNs communication is a revolutionary trend exploiting the expanded capabilities of Web 2.0, which provide users with the flexibility and freedom to post, write, and construct large social network relations. On one hand, OSNs provide users with novel and large-scale social interactions, which is a concept previously considered impossible in terms of scale and extent. On the other hand, OSNs can be used by criminals as a platform to commit cybercrimes without physically facing their victims. OSNs serve as a medium to commit cybercrimes as well as a delivery mechanism. To tackle these emerging problems, this work proposes effective methods to detect cyberbullying and identify influential spreaders in OSNs. First, an effective method to detect cyberbullying is proposed by offering a unique set of significant features, which show improvement in the performance of machine learning classifiers when compared to baseline features. Although any user in such massively connected networks can be vulnerable to online misbehavior, hence applying detection methods for every node (user) of a network is impractical. Therefore, an effective controlling method is required along with the detection method. The information spreading controlling method is achieved by proposing an effective method to identify influential spreaders in OSNs. Identifying these users is significant to either hinder the diffusion of unwanted information, such as rumor and cyberbullying, or accelerate spreading and distribution of precautionary messages as part of cyberbullying prevention strategies. Thus, interaction weighted k-core method

    The Role of Natural Language Processing during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Health Applications, Opportunities, and Challenges

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    The COVID-19 pandemic is the most devastating public health crisis in at least a century and has affected the lives of billions of people worldwide in unprecedented ways. Compared to pandemics of this scale in the past, societies are now equipped with advanced technologies that can mitigate the impacts of pandemics if utilized appropriately. However, opportunities are currently not fully utilized, particularly at the intersection of data science and health. Health-related big data and technological advances have the potential to significantly aid the fight against such pandemics, including the current pandemic’s ongoing and long-term impacts. Specifically, the field of natural language processing (NLP) has enormous potential at a time when vast amounts of text-based data are continuously generated from a multitude of sources, such as health/hospital systems, published medical literature, and social media. Effectively mitigating the impacts of the pandemic requires tackling challenges associated with the application and deployment of NLP systems. In this paper, we review the applications of NLP to address diverse aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic. We outline key NLP-related advances on a chosen set of topics reported in the literature and discuss the opportunities and challenges associated with applying NLP during the current pandemic and future ones. These opportunities and challenges can guide future research aimed at improving the current health and social response systems and pandemic preparedness

    Data fusion and multiple classifier systems for human activity detection and health monitoring: Review and open research directions

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    Activity detection and classification using different sensor modalities have emerged as revolutionary technology for real-time and autonomous monitoring in behaviour analysis, ambient assisted living, activity of daily living (ADL), elderly care, rehabilitations, entertainments and surveillance in smart home environments. Wearable devices, smart-phones and ambient environments devices are equipped with variety of sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, magnetometer, heart rate, pressure and wearable camera for activity detection and monitoring. These sensors are pre-processed and different feature sets such as time domain, frequency domain, wavelet transform are extracted and transform using machine learning algorithm for human activity classification and monitoring. Recently, deep learning algorithms for automatic feature representation have also been proposed to lessen the burden of reliance on handcrafted features and to increase performance accuracy. Initially, one set of sensor data, features or classifiers were used for activity recognition applications. However, there are new trends on the implementation of fusion strategies to combine sensors data, features and classifiers to provide diversity, offer higher generalization, and tackle challenging issues. For instances, combination of inertial sensors provide mechanism to differentiate activity of similar patterns and accurate posture identification while other multimodal sensor data are used for energy expenditure estimations, object localizations in smart homes and health status monitoring. Hence, the focus of this review is to provide in-depth and comprehensive analysis of data fusion and multiple classifier systems techniques for human activity recognition with emphasis on mobile and wearable devices. First, data fusion methods and modalities were presented and also feature fusion, including deep learning fusion for human activity recognition were critically analysed, and their applications, strengths and issues were identified. Furthermore, the review presents different multiple classifier system design and fusion methods that were recently proposed in literature. Finally, open research problems that require further research and improvements are identified and discussed

    Dynamic Butterfly Optimization Algorithm for Feature Selection

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    Feature selection represents an essential pre-processing step for a wide range of Machine Learning approaches. Datasets typically contain irrelevant features that may negatively affect the classifier performance. A feature selector can reduce the number of these features and maximise the classifier accuracy. This paper proposes a Dynamic Butterfly Optimization Algorithm (DBOA) as an improved variant to Butterfly Optimization Algorithm (BOA) for feature selection problems. BOA represents one of the most recently proposed optimization algorithms. BOA has demonstrated its ability to solve different types of problems with competitive results compared to other optimization algorithms. However, the original BOA algorithm has problems when optimising high-dimensional problems. Such issues include stagnation into local optima and lacking solutions diversity during the optimization process. To alleviate these weaknesses of the original BOA, two significant improvements are introduced in the original BOA: the development of a Local Search Algorithm Based on Mutation (LSAM) operator to avoid local optima problem and the use of LSAM to improve BOA solutions diversity. To demonstrate the efficiency and superiority of the proposed DBOA algorithm, 20 benchmark datasets from the UCI repository are employed. The classification accuracy, the fitness values, the number of selected features, the statistical results, and convergence curves are reported for DBOA and its competing algorithms. These results demonstrate that DBOA significantly outperforms the comparative algorithms on the majority of the used performance metrics

    Big data social media analytics for purchasing behaviour

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    The social media is rich in data and of late its data have been used for various types of analytics. This paper examines the purchasing behavior and sentiments of social media users from Jan - 2015 to Dec - 2016. The purchasing behaviour of the users is categorized into five: buy car, buy house, buy computer, buy hand phone and going for holiday. The paper will also demonstrate the trend of each individual category. The results of the analysis would provide businesses information on the social media users' purchasing behavior, their sentiment thus allowing them to take more appropriate strategies to enhance their competitiveness