2,100 research outputs found

    Reporting of Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) association studies: An empirical assessment

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Several thousand human genome epidemiology association studies are published every year investigating the relationship between common genetic variants and diverse phenotypes. Transparent reporting of study methods and results allows readers to better assess the validity of study findings. Here, we document reporting practices of human genome epidemiology studies.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Articles were randomly selected from a continuously updated database of human genome epidemiology association studies to be representative of genetic epidemiology literature. The main analysis evaluated 315 articles published in 2001–2003. For a comparative update, we evaluated 28 more recent articles published in 2006, focusing on issues that were poorly reported in 2001–2003.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>During both time periods, most studies comprised relatively small study populations and examined one or more genetic variants within a single gene. Articles were inconsistent in reporting the data needed to assess selection bias and the methods used to minimize misclassification (of the genotype, outcome, and environmental exposure) or to identify population stratification. Statistical power, the use of unrelated study participants, and the use of replicate samples were reported more often in articles published during 2006 when compared with the earlier sample.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We conclude that many items needed to assess error and bias in human genome epidemiology association studies are not consistently reported. Although some improvements were seen over time, reporting guidelines and online supplemental material may help enhance the transparency of this literature.</p

    Health and wellbeing amongst older people research in Northamptonshire

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    The Ageing Research Centre of the University of Northampton (2014-current), in collaboration with the East Midlands Research into Ageing Network (EMRAN) is pleased to compile this brochure on research activity associated with older people across the county of Northamptonshire. This provides a comprehensive overview of activity that is relevant and of value to practice, identifying research outcomes that have real significance to age-related health and wellbeing. The brochure provides a summary of research activity over the last five years from academic, clinical and professional colleagues and demonstrates cross sector networks of collaboration around the common agenda of aging. Such collaboration will enhance the capacity of research understanding across the county and provide information and support for the needs of older people, their families and carers. The translation of research outcomes into practice is essential if we are to promote wellness, independence and healthy aging within the county and beyond and I would like to thank all contributors for their commitment and hard work in the production of this brochure

    The interactive role of type 2 diabetes mellitus and E-selectin S128R mutation on susceptibility to coronary heart disease

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The role of gene-environment interactions as risk factors for coronary heart disease (CAD) remains largely undefined. Such interactions may involve gene mutations and disease conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) predisposing individuals to acquiring the disease.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>In the present study, we assessed the possible interactive effect of DM2 and E-selectin S128R polymorphism with respect to its predisposing individuals to CAD, using as a study model a population of 1,112 patients and 427 angiographed controls of Saudi origin. E-selectin genotyping was accomplished by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by <it>Pst</it>I restriction enzyme digestion.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The results show that DM2 is an independent risk factor for CAD. In the absence of DM2, the presence of the R mutant allele alone is not significantly associated with CAD (p = 0.431, OR 1.28). In contrast, in the presence of DM2 and the S allele, the likelihood of an individual acquiring CAD is significant (odds ratio = 5.44; p = < 0.001). This effect of DM2 becomes remarkably greater in the presence of the mutant 128R allele, as can be observed from the odds ratio of their interaction term (odds ratio = 6.11; p = < 0.001).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our findings indicate therefore that the risk of acquiring CAD in patients with DM2 increases significantly in the presence of the 128R mutant allele of the E-selectin gene.</p

    Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen), North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) and Turkey.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from 1.8to1.8 to 4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%). G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%). G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.</p

    Search for flavour-changing neutral currents in processes with one top quark and a photon using 81 fb−1 of pp collisions at s=13TeV with the ATLAS experiment

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    A search for flavour-changing neutral current (FCNC) events via the coupling of a top quark, a photon, and an up or charm quark is presented using 81 fb−1 of proton–proton collision data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events with a photon, an electron or muon, a b-tagged jet, and missing transverse momentum are selected. A neural network based on kinematic variables differentiates between events from signal and background processes. The data are consistent with the background-only hypothesis, and limits are set on the strength of the tqγ coupling in an effective field theory. These are also interpreted as 95% CL upper limits on the cross section for FCNC tγ production via a left-handed (right-handed) tuγ coupling of 36 fb (78 fb) and on the branching ratio for t→γu of 2.8×10−5 (6.1×10−5). In addition, they are interpreted as 95% CL upper limits on the cross section for FCNC tγ production via a left-handed (right-handed) tcγ coupling of 40 fb (33 fb) and on the branching ratio for t→γc of 22×10−5 (18×10−5)