129 research outputs found

    Radii of k-starlikeness of order α of Struve and Lommel functions

    Get PDF
    WOS:000661139500001In the present work our main objective is to determine the radii of k– starlikeness of order a of the some normalized Struve and Lommel functions of the first kind. Furthermore it has been shown that the obtained radii satisfy some functional equations. The main key tool of our proofs are the Mittag-Leffler expansions of the Struve and Lommel functions of the first kind and minimum principle for harmonic functions. Also we take advantage of some basic inequalities in the complex analysis

    Beyond blood brain barrier breakdown – in vivo detection of occult neuroinflammatory foci by magnetic nanoparticles in high field MRI

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely applied for the visualization of blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recently, the potential of magnetic nanoparticles to detect macrophage infiltration by MRI was demonstrated. We here investigated a new class of very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP) as novel contrast medium in murine adoptive-transfer EAE. METHODS: EAE was induced in 17 mice via transfer of proteolipid protein specific T cells. MR images were obtained before and after application of Gd-DTPA and VSOP on a 7 Tesla rodent MR scanner. The enhancement pattern of the two contrast agents was compared, and correlated to histology, including Prussian Blue staining for VSOP detection and immunofluorescent staining against IBA-1 to identify macrophages/microglia. RESULTS: Both contrast media depicted BBB breakdown in 42 lesions, although differing in plaques appearances and shapes. Furthermore, 13 lesions could be exclusively visualized by VSOP. In the subsequent histological analysis, VSOP was localized to microglia/macrophages, and also diffusely dispersed within the extracellular matrix. CONCLUSION: VSOP showed a higher sensitivity in detecting BBB alterations compared to Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI, providing complementary information of macrophage/microglia activity in inflammatory plaques that has not been visualized by conventional means

    direct comparison of M1-AQP4-DNA-transfected cells with leaky scanning versus M23-AQP4-DNA-transfected cells as antigenic substrate

    Get PDF
    Background Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic syndrome) is associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4 (NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab) in the majority of cases. NMO- IgG/AQP4-Ab seropositivity in patients with NMO and its spectrum disorders has important differential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications. So-called cell-based assays (CBA) are thought to provide the best AQP4-Ab detection rates. Objective To compare directly the AQP4-IgG detection rates of the currently most widely used commercial CBA, which employs cells transfected with a full-length (M1)-human AQP4 DNA in a fashion that allows leaky scanning (LS) and thus expression of M23-AQP4 in addition to M1-AQP, to that of a newly developed CBA from the same manufacturer employing cells transfected with human M23-AQP4-DNA. Methods Results from 368 serum samples that had been referred for routine AQP4-IgG determination and had been tested in parallel in the two assays were compared. Results Seventy-seven out of 368 samples (20.9%) were positive for NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab in at least one assay. Of these, 73 (94.8%) were positive in both assays. A single sample (1.3%) was exclusively positive in the novel assay; three samples (3.9%) were unequivocally positive only in the ‘classic’ assay due to high background intensity in the novel assay. Both median fluorescence intensity and background intensity were higher in the new assay. Conclusions This large study did not reveal significant differences in AQP4-IgG detection rates between the ‘classic’ CBA and a new M23-DNA-based CBA. Importantly, our results largely re-affirm the validity of previous studies that had used the ‘classic’ AQP4-CBA to establish NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab seropositivity rates in NMO and in a variety of NMO spectrum disorders

    Aquaporin-4 antibody testing: direct comparison of M1-AQP4-DNA-transfected cells with leaky scanning versus M23-AQP4-DNA-transfected cells as antigenic substrate

    Get PDF
    Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic syndrome) is associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4 (NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab) in the majority of cases. NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab seropositivity in patients with NMO and its spectrum disorders has important differential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications. So-called cell-based assays (CBA) are thought to provide the best AQP4-Ab detection rates. Objective: To compare directly the AQP4-IgG detection rates of the currently most widely used commercial CBA, which employs cells transfected with a full-length (M1)-human AQP4 DNA in a fashion that allows leaky scanning (LS) and thus expression of M23-AQP4 in addition to M1-AQP, to that of a newly developed CBA from the same manufacturer employing cells transfected with human M23-AQP4-DNA. Methods: Results from 368 serum samples that had been referred for routine AQP4-IgG determination and had been tested in parallel in the two assays were compared. Results: Seventy-seven out of 368 samples (20.9%) were positive for NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab in at least one assay. Of these, 73 (94.8%) were positive in both assays. A single sample (1.3%) was exclusively positive in the novel assay; three samples (3.9%) were unequivocally positive only in the ‘classic’ assay due to high background intensity in the novel assay. Both median fluorescence intensity and background intensity were higher in the new assay. Conclusions: This large study did not reveal significant differences in AQP4-IgG detection rates between the ‘classic’ CBA and a new M23-DNA-based CBA. Importantly, our results largely re-affirm the validity of previous studies that had used the ‘classic’ AQP4-CBA to establish NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab seropositivity rates in NMO and in a variety of NMO spectrum disorders

    Interferon beta-1a sc at 25 years: a mainstay in the treatment of multiple sclerosis over the period of one generation.

    Get PDF
    INTRODUCTION Interferon beta (IFN beta) preparations are an established group of drugs used for immunomodulation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Subcutaneously (sc) applied interferon beta-1a (IFN beta-1a sc) has been in continuous clinical use for 25 years as a disease-modifying treatment. AREAS COVERED Based on data published since 2018, we discuss recent insights from analyses of the pivotal trial PRISMS and its long-term extension as well as from newer randomized studies with IFN beta-1a sc as the reference treatment, the use of IFN beta-1a sc across the patient life span and as a bridging therapy, recent data regarding the mechanisms of action, and potential benefits of IFN beta-1a sc regarding vaccine responses. EXPERT OPINION IFN beta-1a sc paved the way to effective immunomodulatory treatment of MS, enabled meaningful insights into the disease process, and remains a valid therapeutic option in selected vulnerable MS patient groups

    Neuroprotective Effect of Combination Therapy of Glatiramer Acetate and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Neuroinflammation

    Get PDF
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. However, studies of MS and the animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), indicate that neuronal pathology is the principle cause of clinical disability. Thus, there is need to develop new therapeutic strategies that not only address immunomodulation but also neuroprotection. Here we show that the combination therapy of Glatiramer acetate (GA), an immunomodulatory MS therapeutic, and the neuroprotectant epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main phenol in green tea, have synergistic protective effects in vitro and in the EAE model. EGCG and GA together led to increased protection from glutamate- and TRAIL-induced neuronal cell death in vitro. EGCG combined with GA induced regeneration of hippocampal axons in an outgrowth assay. The combined application of EGCG and GA did not result in unexpected adverse events in vivo. Neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects could be translated in the in vivo model, where combination treatment with EGCG and GA significantly delayed disease onset, strongly reduced clinical severity, even after onset of symptoms and reduced inflammatory infiltrates. These results illustrate the promise of combining neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory treatments and strengthen the prospects of EGCG as an adjunct therapy for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases

    Clinical, paraclinical and serological findings in Susac syndrome: an international multicenter study

    Get PDF
    Background: Susac syndrome (SuS) is a rare disorder thought to be caused by autoimmune-mediated occlusions of microvessels in the brain, retina and inner ear leading to central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, visual disturbances due to branch retinal artery occlusions (BRAO), and hearing deficits. Recently, a role for anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in SuS has been proposed. Objectives: To report the clinical and paraclinical findings in the largest single series of patients so far and to investigate the frequency, titers, and clinical relevance of AECA in SuS. Patients and methods: A total of 107 serum samples from 20 patients with definite SuS, 5 with abortive forms of SuS (all with BRAO), and 70 controls were tested for AECA by immunohistochemistry employing primate brain tissue sections. Results: IgG-AECA >1:100 were detected in 25% (5/20) of patients with definite SuS and in 4.3% (3/70) of the controls. Median titers were significantly higher in SuS (1:3200, range 1:100 to 1:17500) than in controls (1:100, range 1:10 to 1:320); IgG-AECA titers >1:320 were exclusively present in patients with SuS; three controls had very low titers (1:10). Follow-up samples (n = 4) from a seropositive SuS patient obtained over a period of 29 months remained positive at high titers. In all seropositive cases, AECA belonged to the complement-activating IgG1 subclass. All but one of the IgG-AECA-positive samples were positive also for IgA-AECA and 45% for IgM-AECA. SuS took a severe and relapsing course in most patients and was associated with bilateral visual and hearing impairment, a broad panel of neurological and neuropsychological symptoms, and brain atrophy in the majority of cases. Seropositive and seronegative patients did not differ with regard to any of the clinical or paraclinical parameters analyzed. Conclusions: SuS took a severe and protracted course in the present cohort, resulting in significant impairment. Our finding of high-titer IgG1 and IgM AECA in some patients suggest that humoral autoimmunity targeting the microvasculature may play a role in the pathogenesis of SuS, at least in a subset of patients. Further studies are warranted to define the exact target structures of AECA in SuS

    Antibody to Aquaporin 4 in the Diagnosis of Neuromyelitis Optica

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) of putative autoimmune aetiology. Early discrimination between multiple sclerosis (MS) and NMO is important, as optimum treatment for both diseases may differ considerably. Recently, using indirect immunofluorescence analysis, a new serum autoantibody (NMO-IgG) has been detected in NMO patients. The binding sites of this autoantibody were reported to colocalize with aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channels. Thus we hypothesized that AQP4 antibodies in fact characterize NMO patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based on these observations we cloned human water channel AQP4, expressed the protein in a eukaryotic transcription/translation system, and employed the recombinant AQP4 to establish a new radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA). Indeed, application of this RIPA showed that antibodies against AQP4 exist in the majority of patients with NMO (n = 37; 21 positive) as well as in patients with isolated longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (n = 6; six positive), corresponding to a sensitivity of 62.8% and a specificity of 98.3%. By contrast, AQP4 antibodies were virtually absent in 291 other participants, which included patients with MS (n = 144; four positive), patients with other inflammatory and noninflammatory neurological diseases (n = 73; one positive), patients with systemic autoimmune diseases (n = 45; 0 positive), and healthy participants (n = 29; 0 positive). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest series reported so far to our knowledge, we quantified AQP4 antibodies in patients with NMO versus various other diseases, and showed that the aquaporin 4 water channel is a target antigen in a majority of patients with NMO. The newly developed assay represents a highly specific, observer-independent, and easily reproducible detection method facilitating clinically relevant discrimination between NMO, MS, and other inflammatory diseases

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 autoantibodies in paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy

    Get PDF
    Background: Recently, we described a novel autoantibody, anti-Sj/ITPR1-IgG, that targets the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (ITPR1) in patients with cerebellar ataxia. However, ITPR1 is expressed not only by Purkinje cells but also in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, in the substantia gelatinosa and in the motor, sensory (including the dorsal root ganglia) and autonomic peripheral nervous system, suggesting that the clinical spectrum associated with autoimmunity to ITPR1 may be broader than initially thought. Here we report on serum autoantibodies to ITPR1 (up to 1:15,000) in three patients with (radiculo)polyneuropathy, which in two cases was associated with cancer (ITPR1-expressing adenocarcinoma of the lung, multiple myeloma), suggesting a paraneoplastic aetiology. Methods: Serological and other immunological studies, and retrospective analysis of patient records. Results: The clinical findings comprised motor, sensory (including severe pain) and autonomic symptoms. While one patient presented with subacute symptoms mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), the symptoms progressed slowly in two other patients. Electrophysiology revealed delayed F waves; a decrease in motor and sensory action potentials and conduction velocities; delayed motor latencies; signs of denervation, indicating sensorimotor radiculopolyneuropathy of the mixed type; and no conduction blocks. ITPR1-IgG belonged to the complement-activating IgG1 subclass in the severely affected patient but exclusively to the IgG2 subclass in the two more mildly affected patients. Cerebrospinal fluid ITPR1-IgG was found to be of predominantly extrathecal origin. A 3H-thymidine-based proliferation assay confirmed the presence of ITPR1-reactive lymphocytes among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Immunophenotypic profiling of PBMCs protein demonstrated predominant proliferation of B cells, CD4 T cells and CD8 memory T cells following stimulation with purified ITPR1 protein. Patient ITPR1-IgG bound both to peripheral nervous tissue and to lung tumour tissue. A nerve biopsy showed lymphocyte infiltration (including cytotoxic CD8 cells), oedema, marked axonal loss and myelin-positive macrophages, indicating florid inflammation. ITPR1-IgG serum titres declined following tumour removal, paralleled by clinical stabilization. Conclusions: Our findings expand the spectrum of clinical syndromes associated with ITPR1-IgG and suggest that autoimmunity to ITPR1 may underlie peripheral nervous system diseases (including GBS) in some patients and may be of paraneoplastic origin in a subset of cases
    corecore