292 research outputs found

    Design, synthesis and characterization of novel fluorinated styryl chromones

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    225-228(E)-3-(3-(Trifluoromethyl)-5-nitrophenyl)acrylic acid 1 when treated with substituted 2-hydroxyacetophenones 2 in dry pyridine and POCl3 affords compound 3 which when reacted with pyridine/KOH by B. V. transformation gives 4. Compound 4 on refluxing with acetic acid in HCl gives 5. The structures of all synthesized compounds have been confirmed by spectroscopic techniques

    Electrical behaviour, characteristics and properties of anodic aluminium oxide films coloured by nickel electrodeposition

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    Porous anodic films on 1050 aluminium substrate were coloured by AC electrodeposition of nickel. Several experiments were performed at different deposition voltages and nickel concentrations in the electrolyte in order to correlate the applied electrical power to the electrical behaviour, as well as the characteristics and properties of the coatings. The content of nickel inside the coatings reached 1.67 g/m2, depending on the experimental conditions. According to the applied AC voltage in comparison with the threshold voltage Ut, the coating either acted only as a capacitor when U\Ut and, when U[Ut, the behaviour during the anodic and cathodic parts of the power sine wave was different. In particular, due to the semi-conducting characteristics of the barrier layer, additional oxidation of the aluminium substrate occurred during the anodic part of the electrical signal, whilst metal deposition (and solvent reduction) occurred during the cathodic part; these mechanisms correspond to the blocked and pass directions of the barrier layer/electrolyte junction, respectively

    Pore-scale numerical investigation of pressure drop behaviour across open-cell metal foams

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    The development and validation of a grid-based pore-scale numerical modelling methodology applied to five different commercial metal foam samples is described. The 3-D digital representation of the foam geometry was obtained by the use of X-ray microcomputer tomography scans, and macroscopic properties such as porosity, specific surface and pore size distribution are directly calculated from tomographic data. Pressure drop measurements were performed on all the samples under a wide range of flow velocities, with focus on the turbulent flow regime. Airflow pore-scale simulations were carried out solving the continuity and Navier–Stokes equations using a commercial finite volume code. The feasibility of using Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes models to account for the turbulence within the pore space was evaluated. Macroscopic transport quantities are calculated from the pore-scale simulations by averaging. Permeability and Forchheimer coefficient values are obtained from the pressure gradient data for both experiments and simulations and used for validation. Results have shown that viscous losses are practically negligible under the conditions investigated and pressure losses are dominated by inertial effects. Simulations performed on samples with varying thickness in the flow direction showed the pressure gradient to be affected by the sample thickness. However, as the thickness increased, the pressure gradient tended towards an asymptotic value

    Designing and implementing sample and data collection for an international genetics study: the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC)

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    Background and Purpose The Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) is an international project whose primary aims are to: (a) discover genes that modify type 1 diabetes risk; and (b) expand upon the existing genetic resources for type 1 diabetes research. The initial goal was to collect 2500 affected sibling pair (ASP) families worldwide

    Genetic scores to stratify risk of developing multiple islet autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes: A prospective study in children

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    BackgroundAround 0.3% of newborns will develop autoimmunity to pancreatic beta cells in childhood and subsequently develop type 1 diabetes before adulthood. Primary prevention of type 1 diabetes will require early intervention in genetically at-risk infants. The objective of this study was to determine to what extent genetic scores (two previous genetic scores and a merged genetic score) can improve the prediction of type 1 diabetes.Methods and findingsThe Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study followed genetically at-risk children at 3-to 6-monthly intervals from birth for the development of islet auto-antibodies and type 1 diabetes. Infants were enrolled between 1 September 2004 and 28 February 2010 and monitored until 31 May 2016. The risk (positive predictive value) for developing multiple islet autoantibodies (pre-symptomatic type 1 diabetes) and type 1 diabetes was determined in 4,543 children who had no first-degree relatives with type 1 diabetes and either a heterozygous HLA DR3 and DR4-DQ8 risk genotype or a homozygous DR4-DQ8 genotype, and in 3,498 of these children in whom genetic scores were calculated from 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms. In the children with the HLA risk genotypes, risk for developing multiple islet autoantibodies was 5.8% (95% CI 5.0%-6.6%) by age 6 years, and risk for diabetes by age 10 years was 3.7% (95% CI 3.0%-4.4%). Risk for developing multiple islet autoantibodies was 11.0% (95% CI 8.7%-13.3%) in children with a merged genetic score of >14.4 (upper quartile; n = 907) compared to 4.1% (95% CI 3.3%-4.9%, P 14.4 compared with 2.7% (95% CI 1.9%-3.6%) in children with a score of 14.4. Scores were higher in European versus US children (P = 0.003). In children with a merged score of >14.4, risk for multiple islet autoantibodies was similar and consistently >10% in Europe and in the US; risk was greater in males than in females (P = 0.01). Limitations of the study include that the genetic scores were originally developed from case-control studies of clinical diabetes in individuals of mainly European decent. It is, therefore, possible that it may not be suitable to all populations.ConclusionsA type 1 diabetes genetic score identified infants without family history of type 1 diabetes who had a greater than 10% risk for pre-symptomatic type 1 diabetes, and a nearly 2-fold higher risk than children identified by high-risk HLA genotypes alone. This finding extends the possibilities for enrolling children into type 1 diabetes primary prevention trials

    alphabeta T cell receptors as predictors of health and disease

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    The diversity of antigen receptors and the specificity it underlies are the hallmarks of the cellular arm of the adaptive immune system. T and B lymphocytes are indeed truly unique in their ability to generate receptors capable of recognizing virtually any pathogen. It has been known for several decades that T lymphocytes recognize short peptides derived from degraded proteins presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules at the cell surface. Interaction between peptide-MHC (pMHC) and the T cell receptor (TCR) is central to both thymic selection and peripheral antigen recognition. It is widely assumed that TCR diversity is required, or at least highly desirable, to provide sufficient immune coverage. However, a number of immune responses are associated with the selection of predictable, narrow, or skewed repertoires and public TCR chains. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the formation of the TCR repertoire and its maintenance in health and disease. We also outline the various molecular mechanisms that govern the composition of the pre-selection, naive and antigen-specific TCR repertoires. Finally, we suggest that with the development of high-throughput sequencing, common TCR \u27signatures\u27 raised against specific antigens could provide important diagnostic biomarkers and surrogate predictors of disease onset, progression and outcome

    The quest for genetic risk factors for Crohn's disease in the post-GWAS era

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    Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and two large scale meta-analyses have been performed for Crohn's disease and have identified 71 susceptibility loci. These findings have contributed greatly to our current understanding of the disease pathogenesis. Yet, these loci only explain approximately 23% of the disease heritability. One of the future challenges in this post-GWAS era is to identify potential sources of the remaining heritability. Such sources may include common variants with limited effect size, rare variants with higher effect sizes, structural variations, or even more complicated mechanisms such as epistatic, gene-environment and epigenetic interactions. Here, we outline potential sources of this hidden heritability, focusing on Crohn's disease and the currently available data. We also discuss future strategies to determine more about the heritability; these strategies include expanding current GWAS, fine-mapping, whole genome sequencing or exome sequencing, and using family-based approaches. Despite the current limitations, such strategies may help to transfer research achievements into clinical practice and guide the improvement of preventive and therapeutic measures

    Genetic Evidence Supporting the Association of Protease and Protease Inhibitor Genes with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review

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    As part of the European research consortium IBDase, we addressed the role of proteases and protease inhibitors (P/PIs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which affects 2.2 million people in Europe and 1.4 million people in North America. We systematically reviewed all published genetic studies on populations of European ancestry (67 studies on Crohn's disease [CD] and 37 studies on ulcerative colitis [UC]) to identify critical genomic regions associated with IBD. We developed a computer algorithm to map the 807 P/PI genes with exact genomic locations listed in the MEROPS database of peptidases onto these critical regions and to rank P/PI genes according to the accumulated evidence for their association with CD and UC. 82 P/PI genes (75 coding for proteases and 7 coding for protease inhibitors) were retained for CD based on the accumulated evidence. The cylindromatosis/turban tumor syndrome gene (CYLD) on chromosome 16 ranked highest, followed by acylaminoacyl-peptidase (APEH), dystroglycan (DAG1), macrophage-stimulating protein (MST1) and ubiquitin-specific peptidase 4 (USP4), all located on chromosome 3. For UC, 18 P/PI genes were retained (14 proteases and 4protease inhibitors), with a considerably lower amount of accumulated evidence. The ranking of P/PI genes as established in this systematic review is currently used to guide validation studies of candidate P/PI genes, and their functional characterization in interdisciplinary mechanistic studies in vitro and in vivo as part of IBDase. The approach used here overcomes some of the problems encountered when subjectively selecting genes for further evaluation and could be applied to any complex disease and gene family

    Polymorphism in a T-cell receptor variable gene is associated with susceptibility to a juvenile rheumatoid arthritis subset

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    This report demonstrates a T-cell receptor (Tcr) restriction fragment length polymorphism, defined by a Tcrb-V6.1 gene probe and Bgl II restriction enzyme, to be absolutely correlated with allelic variation in the coding sequence of a Tcrb-V6.1 gene. A pair of non-conservative amino acid substitutions distinguish the Tcrb-V6.1 allelic variants. An association of this Tcrb-V6.1 gene allelic variant with one form of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) was established in a cohort of 126 patients. The association was observed in patients possessing the HLA-DQA1*0101 gene. Among HLA-DQA*0101 individuals, 19 of 26 patients (73.1%) carried one particular Tcrb-V6.1 gene allele as opposed to 11 of 33 controls (33%; p<0.005). Haplotypes carrying this HLA gene have previously been shown to confer increased risk for progression of arthritis in JRA. This demonstration of a disease-associated Tcrb-V gene allelic variant has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported and supports the contribution of polymorphism in the Tcr variable region genomic repertoire to human autoimmune disease.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/46750/1/251_2004_Article_BF00166831.pd