2,393 research outputs found

    Restoration of CD28 Expression in CD28− CD8+ Memory Effector T Cells Reconstitutes Antigen-induced IL-2 Production

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    The control of many persistent viral infections by Ag-specific cytolytic CD8+ T cells requires a concurrent virus-specific CD4+ Th cell response. This reflects in part a requirement of activated effector CD8+ T cells for paracrine IL-2 production as a growth and survival factor. In human CMV and HIV infection, the majority of differentiated virus-specific CD8+ T cells notably lose the ability to produce IL-2 but also lose expression of CD28, a costimulatory molecule. Analysis of the fraction of memory CD8+ T cells that continue to express CD28 revealed these cells retain the ability to produce IL-2. Therefore, we examined if IL-2 production by CD28− CD8+ T cells could be restored by introduction of a constitutively expressed CD28 gene. Expression of CD28 in CD28− CD8+ CMV- and HIV-specific CD8+ T cells reconstituted the ability to produce IL-2, which could sustain an autocrine proliferative response after Ag recognition. These results suggest that the loss of CD28 expression during differentiation of memory/effector CD8+ T cells represents a decisive step in establishing regulation of responding CD8+ T cells, increasing the dependence on CD4+ Th for proliferation after target recognition, and has implications for the treatment of viral disease with adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells

    A diffuse scattering model of ultracold neutrons on wavy surfaces

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    Metal tubes plated with nickel-phosphorus are used in many fundamental physics experiments using ultracold neutrons (UCN) because of their ease of fabrication. These tubes are usually polished to a average roughness of 25-150 nm. However, there is no scattering model that accurately describes UCN scattering on such a rough guide surface with a mean-square roughness larger than 5 nm. We therefore developed a scattering model for UCN in which scattering from random surface waviness with a size larger than the UCN wavelength is described by a microfacet Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function model (mf-BRDF model), and scattering from smaller structures by the Lambert's cosine law (Lambert model). For the surface waviness, we used the statistical distribution of surface slope measured by an atomic force microscope on a sample piece of guide tube as input of the model. This model was used to describe UCN transmission experiments conducted at the pulsed UCN source at J-PARC. In these experiments, a UCN beam collimated to a divergence angle smaller than ±6\pm 6^{\circ} was directed into a guide tube with a mean-square roughness of 6.4 nm to 17 nm at an oblique angle, and the UCN transport performance and its time-of-flight distribution were measured while changing the angle of incidence. The mf-BRDF model combined with the Lambert model with scattering probability pL=0.039±0.003p_{L} = 0.039\pm0.003 reproduced the experimental results well. We have thus established a procedure to evaluate the characteristics of UCN guide tubes with a surface roughness of approximately 10 nm.Comment: 15 pages, 11 figure

    Search for flavour-changing neutral currents in processes with one top quark and a photon using 81 fb−1 of pp collisions at s=13TeV with the ATLAS experiment

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    A search for flavour-changing neutral current (FCNC) events via the coupling of a top quark, a photon, and an up or charm quark is presented using 81 fb−1 of proton–proton collision data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events with a photon, an electron or muon, a b-tagged jet, and missing transverse momentum are selected. A neural network based on kinematic variables differentiates between events from signal and background processes. The data are consistent with the background-only hypothesis, and limits are set on the strength of the tqγ coupling in an effective field theory. These are also interpreted as 95% CL upper limits on the cross section for FCNC tγ production via a left-handed (right-handed) tuγ coupling of 36 fb (78 fb) and on the branching ratio for t→γu of 2.8×10−5 (6.1×10−5). In addition, they are interpreted as 95% CL upper limits on the cross section for FCNC tγ production via a left-handed (right-handed) tcγ coupling of 40 fb (33 fb) and on the branching ratio for t→γc of 22×10−5 (18×10−5)