108 research outputs found

    Improving Characteristics of Clayey Soil Using Basalt Fibre, Construction and Demolition Waste and Calcium Carbide

    Get PDF
    When exposed to changes in moisture, highly compressible clay soils usually show the characteristic of swelling and shrinking and have very poor strength properties. The infrastructures standing on such soil produce fractures as a result of this feature, making the buildings unstable and liable to collapse. By enhancing  the characteristics of clayey soils using soil stabilization can improve their engineering properties. The purpose of this paper tends to investigate the use of construction and demolition waste (C&D), basalt fibre (BF) and calcium carbide (CCR) for stabilization of highly compressible clayey soil. Several laboratory experiments including differential free swell (DFS), Atterberg limits, standard proctor and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) are conducted on soil alone and in combination with admixtures used. Based on UCS result, optimum percentages of C&D waste, basalt fibre and calcium carbide obtained were further tested for California bearing ratio (CBR). The findings show rising UCS and CBR values with addition of 21% C&D waste, 0.3% basalt fibre and 4% calcium carbide in combination to each other with clayey soil. The thickness for flexible pavement was developed using IITPAVE software for CBR values based on specifications of IRC: 37-2018. The software results revealed a decrease in pavement thickness for all combinations of commercial vehicle daily counts of 1000, 3000, and 5000. When clayey soil is combined with C&D waste (21%), BF (0.3%), and CCR (4%) in combination, the greatest reduction in subgrade layer thickness and cost is observed. This method not only improves the geotechnical characteristics of the subgrade layer, aids in decreasing the thickness of the pavement, is highly cost-effective, and resolves the issue of disposal of C&D waste and environmental degradation due to CCR.   &nbsp

    Evaluation of papsmear in pregnancy

    Get PDF
    Background: Cervical cancer is common worldwide and ranks fourth among all malignancies for women. Cervical cytology (PAP smear) as a cancer screening method is most commonly used worldwide. Cervical cancer can be detected at an early stage by PAP smear which is a cost effective and easy to perform test which is also very safe in pregnant women, hence this study is taken up as an opportunistic time for cervical cancer screening to this accessible group of women during their antenatal period and to find detection rate of infectious diseases, precancerous and cancerous pathology of the cervix.Methods: 500 pregnant women of age 21 years and above and between 16-24 weeks of gestation attending the antenatal OPD were included in the study. Scrapings were obtained from the ectocervix and sent for cytological evaluation. Findings were tabulated and statistically analysed.Results: 7.2% of the patients in our study had cervical infection which included candidiasis and trichomonial infections. 0.4% of the patients had abnormal PAP report, and 88.2% had inflammatory smear implying higher risk of STD’s and pregnancy related complications.Conclusions: The cervical cytology is highly recommended for the routine screening in the antenatal care clinic specially for women who had no prior cervical cancer screening. Awareness on cervical cancer, preventive measures and screening methods need to be strengthened among pregnant women when they visit health care facilities and also in the community settings

    The uncharted territory of host-pathogen interaction in tuberculosis

    Get PDF
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) effectively manipulates the host processes to establish the deadly respiratory disease, Tuberculosis (TB). M.tb has developed key mechanisms to disrupt the host cell health to combat immune responses and replicate efficaciously. M.tb antigens such as ESAT-6, 19kDa lipoprotein, Hip1, and Hsp70 destroy the integrity of cell organelles (Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nucleus, Phagosomes) or delay innate/adaptive cell responses. This is followed by the induction of cellular stress responses in the host. Such cells can either undergo various cell death processes such as apoptosis or necrosis, or mount effective immune responses to clear the invading pathogen. Further, to combat the infection progression, the host secretes extracellular vesicles such as exosomes to initiate immune signaling. The exosomes can contain M.tb as well as host cell-derived peptides that can act as a double-edged sword in the immune signaling event. The host-symbiont microbiota produces various metabolites that are beneficial for maintaining healthy tissue microenvironment. In juxtaposition to the above-mentioned mechanisms, M.tb dysregulates the gut and respiratory microbiome to support its replication and dissemination process. The above-mentioned interconnected host cellular processes of Immunometabolism, Cellular stress, Host Microbiome, and Extracellular vesicles are less explored in the realm of exploration of novel Host-directed therapies for TB. Therefore, this review highlights the intertwined host cellular processes to control M.tb survival and showcases the important factors that can be targeted for designing efficacious therapy

    Municipal solid waste landfill leachate induced cytotoxicity in root tips of Vicia faba: Environmental Risk posed by non-engineered landfill

    Get PDF
    Landfills are considered the main option for dumping of municipal solid waste (MSW) all over the world, but these landfills are mostly non-engineered. The decomposition of solid waste in the landfill and rainwater penetration into the decomposing waste produces leachate that contains dissolved organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, suspended particles, and hazardous substances. Leachate migration in the environment may pose serious health risks to organisms exposed. Hence, the present study explored the cytotoxic potential of landfill leachate collected in different seasons from the Okhla landfill site, Delhi, India. Cytotoxicity of leachate samples was evaluatedby cell apoptosis and ultrastructural observation based on Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) of the cells of root tips of vicia faba seedlings treated with the leachates collected in summer, winter and monsoon in a time and dose dependent manner. Leachate collected in all the three seasons induced apoptosis in cells of root tips of vicia faba that increased in a time and dose dependent manner when compared to control. The apoptosis was highest in the samples treated with leachate collected in the summer season, followed by winter and monsoon. It was further confirmed with TEM images that there was induction of apoptotic-like morphological changes in the root cells treated with landfill leachate when compared with the control. The present study indicates that municipal solid waste leachate is very toxic and it should be treated before disposing it to the environment

    Cytotoxic and genotoxic assessment of wastewater on HEK293 cell line

    Get PDF
    558-564The increasing industrialisation and urbanisation have deteriorated the quality and quantity of water bodies, harming the surrounding flora and fauna. Therefore, in our studies, we have chosen the HEK293 cell line to examine further the level of wastewater toxicity to which living beings are exposed. The water samples were collected from various sites around the Agra Canal in the Faridabad region of Haryana. Furthermore, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity confirmation of wastewater samples were done by MTT and comet assay, respectively. The water quality of the Agra canal is heavily influenced by agricultural, domestic, and industrial waste, which may affect the genetic material of species exposed to contaminated water and the sustainability of the local environment. As a result, continuous environmental monitoring and proper policy formulation are required to minimise the adverse effects of pollutants in waste, which would further enrich India’s preparation to take India a step ahead, and that could be the best possible way to commemorate India’s 75th year of Independence with the Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav

    Obesity-dependent changes in interstitial ECM mechanics promote breast tumorigenesis.

    Get PDF
    Obesity and extracellular matrix (ECM) density are considered independent risk and prognostic factors for breast cancer. Whether they are functionally linked is uncertain. We investigated the hypothesis that obesity enhances local myofibroblast content in mammary adipose tissue and that these stromal changes increase malignant potential by enhancing interstitial ECM stiffness. Indeed, mammary fat of both diet- and genetically induced mouse models of obesity were enriched for myofibroblasts and stiffness-promoting ECM components. These differences were related to varied adipose stromal cell (ASC) characteristics because ASCs isolated from obese mice contained more myofibroblasts and deposited denser and stiffer ECMs relative to ASCs from lean control mice. Accordingly, decellularized matrices from obese ASCs stimulated mechanosignaling and thereby the malignant potential of breast cancer cells. Finally, the clinical relevance and translational potential of our findings were supported by analysis of patient specimens and the observation that caloric restriction in a mouse model reduces myofibroblast content in mammary fat. Collectively, these findings suggest that obesity-induced interstitial fibrosis promotes breast tumorigenesis by altering mammary ECM mechanics with important potential implications for anticancer therapies

    Current Understanding to Accelerate Wound Healing: Mechanism and Clinical Importance

    Get PDF
    Wound mending is a complex organic cycle that brings about the reclamation of tissue honesty. Physiologically, it very well may be separated into four particular periods of hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and tissue remodeling (redesigning). This chapter portrays the cellular premise of wound mending and extracellular flagging cycles, which is responsible to control them. The capacity of fibroblasts, neutrophils, platelets, and macrophages is contemplated exhaustively. The idea of mending by essential and optional expectation is talked about. Numerous components are known to unfavorably influence mending including undernourishment, hypoxia, immunosuppression, ongoing sickness, and medical procedure. It is fundamental that specialists comprehend the key physiological cycles associated with mending to limit patient illness from postponed recuperating

    Identification of Distinct Heterogenic Subtypes and Molecular Signatures Associated with African Ancestry in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Using Quantified Genetic Ancestry Models in Admixed Race Populations

    Get PDF
    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are molecularly heterogeneous, and the link between their aggressiveness with African ancestry is not established. We investigated primary TNBCs for gene expression among self-reported race (SRR) groups of African American (AA, n = 42) and European American (EA, n = 33) women. RNA sequencing data were analyzed to measure changes in genome-wide expression, and we utilized logistic regressions to identify ancestry-associated gene expression signatures. Using SNVs identified from our RNA sequencing data, global ancestry was estimated. We identified 156 African ancestry-associated genes and found that, compared to SRR, quantitative genetic analysis was a more robust method to identify racial/ethnic-specific genes that were differentially expressed. A subset of African ancestry-specific genes that were upregulated in TNBCs of our AA patients were validated in TCGA data. In AA patients, there was a higher incidence of basal-like two tumors and altered TP53, NFB1, and AKT pathways. The distinct distribution of TNBC subtypes and altered oncologic pathways show that the ethnic variations in TNBCs are driven by shared genetic ancestry. Thus, to appreciate the molecular diversity of TNBCs, tumors from patients of various ancestral origins should be evaluated
    corecore