12 research outputs found

    Exploring Cases of Ethnic and Racial Disparities in the United States of America and Nigeria

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    Ethnicity and race cannot be easily ignored whilst discussing issues that shape modern society. They are intimately linked that is impossible, to write one adequately without discussing the other. This paper reviews extant theories and perspectives of ethnicity and race. Consequences of ethnic and racial inequalities (most especially in the United States, and some cases ethnic inequalities in Nigeria) were addressed. The paper concludes by stating that in order to minimize ethnic and racial discrimination, it is important to encourage and educate the people to embrace   diversity and multiculturalism, so that different ethnic and racial; groups can have a unique opportunity for individuals to experience and discuss the aspects of racial/ethnic diversity in their lives.  Affirmative action should also be taken to address different races and ethic group’s access to powers and privileges. Keywords: Ethnicity, Race, Discrimination, Organizations, Multiculturalism, Diversit

    Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Organizations

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    Ethnicity and race cannot be easily ignored whilst discussing issues that shape modern society. They are intimately linked that is impossible to write one adequately without discussing the other. This paper reviews selected theoretical perspectives on ethnicity and race. Consequences of ethnic and racial inequalities; most especially in the United States, and some cases ethnic inequalities in Nigeria were addressed. The paper concludes by stating that in order to minimize ethnic and racial discrimination, it is important to encourage and educate the people to embrace   diversity and multiculturalism, so that different ethnic and racial groups can create a unique opportunity for individuals to experience and discuss the aspects of racial/ethnic diversity in their lives.  Affirmative action should also be taken in order to address different races and ethic groups’ access to powers and privileges. Keywords: Ethnicity, Race, Discrimination, Organizations, Multiculturalism, Diversit

    Implication of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and Corruption on the Consolidation of Democracy and Sustainable Development and Growth in Nigeria from 2004-2008

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    Nigeria’s inability to consolidate her democracy is blamed largely on the high level of corruption in the country. Corruption is efforts to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private gain at public expense; or a misuse of public power for private benefit. Corruption like cockroaches has coexisted with human society for a long time and remains as one of the problems in many of the world’s developing economies with devastating consequences. Corruption as a phenomenon, is a global problem, and exists in varying degrees in different countries (Agbu, 2001). Corruption is not only found in democratic and dictatorial politics, but also in feudal, capitalist and socialist economies. Christian, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist cultures are equally bedeviled by corruption (Dike, 2005). Corrupt practices are not an issue that just begins today; but the history is as old as the world (Lipset and Lenz, 2000). Corruption not only distorts competition, hinders economic growth and endangers the stability of democratic institutions; it pulls down the moral foundation of society (Inokoba and Ibegu, 2011). In Nigeria, it is one of the many unresolved problems (Ayobolu, 2006) that have critically hobbled and skewed development. It remains a long-term major political and economic challenge for Nigeria (Sachs, 2007). It is a canker worm that has eaten deep in the fabric of the nation. It ranges from petty corruption to political / bureaucratic corruption or Systemic corruption (International Center for Economic Growth, 1999). World Bank studies put corruption at over 1trillionperyearaccountingforupto121 trillion per year accounting for up to 12% of the Gross Domestic Product of nations like Nigeria, Kenya and Venezuela (Nwabuzor, 2005). Corruption is endemic as well as an enemy within (Agbu, 2003). It is a canker worm that has eaten deep in the fabric of the country and had stunted growth in all sectors (Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC), 2005). It has been the primary reason behind the country difficulties in developing fast (Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), 2006). This is evident in Transparency International’s has consistent rating of Nigeria as one of the top three most corrupt countries in the world (Ribadu, 2003). As part of effort at fighting corruption and strengthening the economy, Nigeria embarked on an aggressive pursuit of economic reform that through privatization, banking sector reform, anticorruption campaigns and establishment of clear and transparent fiscal standards since 1999. The major aim of the economic reforms in Nigeria is to provide a conducive environment for private investment (African economic outlook, 2006). The reform process has the following key 3 pillars: improved macroeconomic management, reform of the financial sector, institutional reforms, privatisation and deregulation, and improvement of the infrastructure. The importance of infrastructure for economic growth and development cannot be overemphasized. The poor state of electricity, transport and communications is a major handicap for doing business in Nigeria. The Federal Government of Nigeria through its Central Bank made progress in consolidation of the banking system which was prior to the reforms was highly fragmented, with many banks having very small and undiversified capitalisation. The reform stipulated a minimum paid-up capital of 188 million, up from $15 million, with a deadline for compliance at the end of December 2005. This resulted in a record number of bank mergers and acquisitions. As a result, the number of banks in Nigeria has shrunk from 89 in 2004 to 25 in December 2005. The institutions charged to fight corruption in Nigeria have not done enough to contain the upsurge of his this menace up to expectation. Thus, the paper is tempted to ask the following questions: Why have the various anti-corruption agencies of various administrations failed to reduce the menace of corruption? Are the methods applied to confront corruption inadequate? Can the present anti-corruption commission (EFCC) effectively confront corruption as a step to the consolidation of democracy? Lastly, does the role played by the EFCC justify why it was established? It is against this background that this study seeks to investigate the implication of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and corruption on the consolidation of democracy and sustainable development and growth in Nigeria from 2004-2008

    The Meaning of Work from the Nigerian Perspective

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    The concept of work is significant for a lot of people, considering the time that individuals devote to work in their lives, the numerous functions which it accomplishes for them and the fact that work is intertwined with other important aspects of daily life such as family, leisure, religion, and community life (England & Whiteley, 1990). This paper explores extant perspectives on the three patterns under the notion of work: a job, a career and a call (Wrzesniewski et al., 1997), and other conceptual perspectives on the meaning of work.  It provides further valuable insights to understanding of how employees find and create meaning and meaningfulness in their work. It explores the work orientation of Nigerians from two prominent patterns of disposition to work. (i.e deep work attachment and instrumental work attitude).  Findings from our review show that; lack of enthusiasm and deep work attachment permeates the work disposition of many Nigerians, who see their job as dull, toilsome, irritating, risky or dangerous. The care-free attitude of most Nigerian workers towards work has hampered human capital development in most organizations, considering the fact that poor quality work declines productivity and cripples development in all ramifications. In Nigeria, and most parts of Africa, most of the people clamor for gainful employment, but do not want to work. These categories of people are more interested in success without hard work, promotion without responsibility, result without process, and credence without work. Keywords: Work, Self, Value, Orientation, Motivation, Belie

    Employees’ Social Expectations: The Reciprocity of Fulfilment and Neglect in the Nigerian Workplace

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    Present research studies on Employee-Centred Corporate Social Responsibility (EC-CSR) focus on the direct relationship between EC-CSR and Employee Organisational Commitment (EOC). Nevertheless, these studies are confined by their adoption of variable-centred techniques to test the EC-CSR-EOC nexus. As such, they provide limited insights into robust elements of EC-CSR, such as, the nature of employees’ social expectations and how and why employees reciprocate EC-CSR practices in certain ways. Furthermore, extant studies are overly focused on developed country contexts, thereby limiting our understanding of EC-CSR in developing countries; where working conditions are, in some places, not very good. For instance, the prevalence of industrial action in the money-spinning Nigerian oil industry suggests that some employees are being deprived of desired support in the workplace. Yet no serious effort has been made to conceptualise employees’ perspective of their employment relationship within the industry. To address these empirical gaps, this research draws on psychological contract and social exchange theories to explore the question: “What do workers in the Nigerian oil industry expect of EC-CSR, and how do they reciprocate the fulfilment and neglect of their expectations?’’ The research utilised a qualitative approach involving in-depth interviews with 25 indigenous entry-level and mid-level professionals working in three different oil companies in Nigeria (i.e., National Oil Agency-NOA; Transnational Oil Company-TNOC; and Private Indigenous Oil Company-POC). The findings suggest that employees’ social expectations were diverse, with contrasting differences being observed in relation to expectations of employees in the public sector organisation (i.e., NOA) and the expectations of their counterparts in private sector organisations (i.e., TNOC & POC). While employees in TNOC and POC perceived that their organisations had been socially supportive, their counterparts in the NOA were cynical about the organisation, due to its somewhat negligent behaviour towards employee wellbeing. The reciprocal reactions of employees to EC-CSR, also varied across three employee groups, with employees in TNOC and POC exhibiting moderate affective organisational commitment (moderate AOC), as they believed that excessive affection towards the organisation could cause emotional damage if the employment relationship is severed later. Additionally, continuance organisational commitment (CC) was exhibited only by female employees in private sector organisations, due to access to maternal support services like workplace nursery and medical care. Interestingly, it was found across the board that positive relationship with co-workers, rather than EC-CSR practices, have greater implications for affective organisational commitment (AOC). Lastly, despite the perceived negligent behaviour of the organisation, employees in the NOA were conditioned by their official ideology, as well as their indigenous and denominational orientations, to exhibit positive reciprocity (i.e., civic behaviour) in the face of organisational neglect. This research contributes to the EC-CSR literature as it is one of the few that have integrated organisational psychology theories to conceptualise EC-CSR from the perspective of employees. The research refutes extant studies, which suggest that, positive positive reciprocity in the workplace are directly influenced by EC-CSR, and thus provide theoretical contributions as to how cordial workplace relationship, indigenous orientation, denominational orientation and official ideology, can elicit positive reciprocity in the face of organisational negligence. The research also extends the EOC literature by advancing moderate affective commitment. Overall, findings from this research could help managers in having a better understanding of employees’ mind-set across private and the public sector organisations, and in creating social interventions aimed at enhancing working lives and in fostering harmony between employees and their organisations

    Impact of country governance mechanisms on carbon emissions performance of multinational entities

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    This study investigates the impact of country governance mechanisms on carbon emissions performance of private sector organisations, using empirical evidence from 336 top multinational entities (MNEs) over a 15-year period. The results show that, at the aggregate level, Control of Corruption (b = −0.021, p < 0.01) and Voice & Accountability (b = −0.015, p < 0.05) are significantly and negatively associated with carbon emissions rate. While Political Stability (b = 0.007, p < 0.05) and Government Effectiveness (b = 0.018, p < 0.05) have significant positive impact on carbon emissions rate, the impact of Regulatory Quality and Rule of Law is negative but insignificant. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the existing institutional environment is not sufficient to deliver the net zero transition. There is a need for more coordination, strategic planning, and delivery monitoring in government institutions to achieve decarbonisation targets. The study contributes to knowledge within the context of the identified research gaps. First, the study adds to the limited literature on the impact of country governance on carbon emissions reduction, particularly with reference to scope 3 emissions. Second, with the sustainable development goals (SDGs) set to expire by 2030, the study provides empirical evidence on efforts governments of countries are making in achieving decarbonisation targets through improvement in country governance quality. Third, the study shows that the impact of the country governance on the carbon emissions performance of MNEs is contextual and varies across jurisdictions/geographical regions. Finally, the paper contributes to the debate on the actualisation of Agenda 2030, because presenting empirical evidence on the impact of country governance mechanisms on carbon emissions reduction—particularly scope 3 emissions—is an important discourse in the realisation of the SDGs
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