243 research outputs found

    Inter-city Variation in Prices

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    In this paper we have constructed a relative cost of living index for 32 cities/towns of Pakistan using latest available prices to understand the extent of current differences in cost of living across cities and also to compare changes in relative cost of living since 1999 [Pasha and Pasha (2002)]. The index values reveal significant differences in cost of living across Pakistan and especially across provinces with prices significantly higher in Balochistan (overall) and NWFP (for wheat). When regressed against various explanatory variables, the variation in cost of living appears to be determined by the population in cubic form (reaching a minimum for a city size of 2.1 million) and the provincial affiliation of cities. The index also reveals that relative to 1999, the economy as a whole appears to have become less integrated as the difference in prices across cities is much greater than in 1999. However, cities in Sindh due to their close proximity to the port have become less expensive because of the increased share of imports in consumption. The findings of this paper have very important implications for public policy with respect to transfer payments to relieve poverty, urban development, inter-provincial trade and transport and allocation of development funds among provinces.Regional Economics Measurement, Regional Economic Activity, Growth, Development, and Changes

    Inter-city Variation in Prices

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    This research has been motivated by the fact that inter-city variation in prices and hence cost of living has implications for many aspects of development and public policy. This is true for all countries and especially for developing countries like Pakistan where one would expect differences in cost of living to be more pronounced (ceterus paribus) due to a relatively underdeveloped transport network and a lack of development of a national common market. A better understanding of the inter-city variation in prices indicates the extent to which markets within countries are integrated. A monitoring of the inter-city price index over time indicates whether the economy as a whole has become more or less integrated over time i.e. has there has been convergence or divergence within the local economy (which has also been one of the objectives of this research). Secondly, a quantification of inter-city variation in cost of living is essential to understand differentials in real incomes across the country. Such an understanding will yield fairer minimum wage legislation by the government and also wage remuneration packages by employers in both the public and private sectors operating in multiple cities thus leading to better equalisation of real wages across locations. As noted by Haworth and Rasmussen (1973) the pursuit of a uniform wage policy by the U.S. Post Office in the 1970s led to greater wage dissatisfaction among workers and labor strikes in areas where cost of living was relatively higher. Thirdly, allowing for cost of living differentials among cities will lead to better estimates of urban inequality and incidence of poverty. In this context it is particularly important to see if differences in cost of living mitigate or accentuate the difference in the magnitude of poverty between richer and poor jurisdictions. The estimation of cost of living differentials will also lead to much greater understanding of migration patterns within countries and the functioning of regional and interregional markets across the country which are directly related to cost of living, and real wages/incomes. For example, if the same minimum wage legislation is applicable to the whole country, it will lead to migration to those cities where cost of living is relative low and hence the real value of the minimum wages is high (ceterus paribus). This illustrates the important implications that uniform minimum wage legislation and welfare packages across the country have for migration patterns when cost of living differentials are significant

    COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERSONALITY FACTORS BETWEEN SPORTSPERSONS OF CONTACT AND NON-CONTACT SPORTS

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    The main purpose of the present study was to compare the personality factors between the sportspersons of the contact and non-contact sports. Big five personality inventory was employed among the sportsperson selecting randomly from colleges of Ganderbal Kashmir region. The size of sample under study was 70, in which 26 were from contact sports (football, hockey, kabaddi, basketball, handball and rugby) and 44 were from non-contact sports (cricket, volleyball, badminton, baseball, ball badminton and shooting ball). The groups were compared on different factors of personality i.e, extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness. The results show almost same personality characteristics exist between the sportspersons of contact and non-contact sports, since calculated ‘t’ values of 0.76 (extraversion), 0.31 (agreeableness), 1.05 (conscientiousness), 0.05 (neuroticism) and 1.1 (openness) for five personality factors were not found statistically significant (p≤0.05 ).  Article visualizations

    ON ZYGMUND–TYPE INEQUALITIES CONCERNING POLAR DERIVATIVE OF POLYNOMIALS

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    Let P(z)P(z) be a polynomial of degree nn, then concerning the estimate for maximum of P(z)|P'(z)| on the unit circle, it was proved by S. Bernstein that PnP\| P'\|_{\infty}\leq n\| P\|_{\infty}. Later, Zygmund obtained an LpL_p-norm extension of this inequality. The polar derivative Dα[P](z)D_{\alpha}[P](z) of P(z)P(z), with respect to a point αC\alpha \in \mathbb{C}, generalizes the ordinary derivative in the sense that limαDα[P](z)/α=P(z).\lim_{\alpha\to\infty} D_{\alpha}[P](z)/{\alpha} = P'(z). Recently, for polynomials of the form P(z)=a0+j=μnajzj,P(z) = a_0 + \sum_{j=\mu}^n a_jz^j, 1μn1\leq\mu\leq n and having no zero in z1|z| 1, the following Zygmund-type inequality for polar derivative of P(z)P(z) was obtained: Dα[P]pn(α+kμkμ+zp)Pp,whereα1,p>0.\|D_{\alpha}[P]\|_p\leq n \Big(\dfrac{|\alpha|+k^{\mu}}{\|k^{\mu}+z\|_p}\Big)\|P\|_p, \quad \text{where}\quad |\alpha|\geq1,\quad p>0.In this paper, we obtained a refinement of this inequality by involving minimum modulus of P(z)|P(z)| on z=k|z| = k, which also includes improvements of some inequalities, for the derivative of a polynomial with restricted zeros as well

    Internal Absorption and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows: A new approach towards Market Size

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    Abstract. In continuation of the efforts to understand the dynamics of internal market, this study proposes Internal Absorption as an instrument for measuring market size for economies which confront large trade deficit over a longer period of time. The study empirically examines the impacts of Internal Absorption along with trade openness and gross private investment on FDI inflows in Pakistan. The ARDL approach to co-integration and ECM based on ARDL is used to test the existence of long run relationships among variables for the period 1976-2009. The result establishes strong positive relationship between Internal Absorption and FDI inflows in short as well as in the long run.Keywords. Foreign direct investment, Internal absorption, Trade openness, Private investment.JEL. F18, F21, F23, O47

    Cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced fracture neck of femur with modular hydroxyapatite coated stem in elderly with cardiopulmonary co-morbidities

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    Background: Bipolar hemiarthroplasty is one of the common procedures done for fracture neck of femur in elderly.  Debate about Cemented or cementless is still on. Cementing increases perioperative mortality by causing significant hemodynamic changes or embolization. Patients with cardiopulmonary complications are at higher risk of cementing complications. We report our series of 31 cases of fracture neck of femur with cardiopulmonary diseases operated over 2 years with modular cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty.Methods: 31 elderly patients with cardiopulmonary co-morbidities (age=75 to 97 years) with displaced femoral neck fractures were operated between January 2011 to December 2013. Cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty using hydroxyapatite coated stem was done by single surgeon using same implant in all the patients through anterolateral approach. Clinical and radiological follow-up was done with mean follow up of 54 months (36-72 months).Results: Total 31 cases with cardiopulmonary comorbidities were operated. The average follow up was 54 months. No intraoperative mortality was seen. 3 patients had splitting of femur during canal preparation. 1 patient died due to cardiac arrest in the post-operative period. 1 patient had surgical site infection. 3 patients had hemodynamic abnormalities and 1 patient had significant limb length discripency (1.5 cm). 2 patients died in the follow up because of comorbidities.  27 patients reached to pre-injury status with average harris hip score of 86 at final follow up.Conclusions: Cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty with hydroxyapatite coated stem is a good option for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients with cardiopulmonary complications without risking the harmful effects of cementing

    Novel food packaging technologies: Innovations and future prospective

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    AbstractNovel food packaging technologies arose as a result of consumer’s desire for convenient, ready to eat, tasty and mild processed food products with extended shelf life and maintained quality. Recent trend of lifestyle changes with less time for consumers to prepare foods posed a great challenge toward food packaging sector for the evolution of novel and innovative food packaging techniques. The novel food packaging techniques, viz. active packaging, intelligent packaging and bio active packaging which involve intentional interaction with the food or its surroundings and influence on consumer’s health have been the major innovations in the field of packaging technology. These novel techniques act by prolonging the shelf life, enhancing or maintaining the quality, providing indication and to regulate freshness of food product. The advancement in novel food packaging technologies involves retardation in oxidation, hindered respiratory process, prevention of microbial attack, prevention of moisture infusion, use of CO2 scavengers/emitters, ethylene scavengers, aroma emitters, time-temperature sensors, ripeness indicators, biosensors and sustained release of antioxidants during storage. The novel food packaging technologies besides the basic function of containment increase the margin of food quality and safety. The novel food packaging techniques thus help in fulfilling the demands throughout the food supply chain by gearing up toward persons own lifestyle. The main objectives of this review article are to provide basic knowledge of different new and innovative food packaging techniques about their way of preservative action, effectiveness and suitability in various types of foods

    Indigenous Plants Based Biodiesel Resources in Pakistan

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    Biodiesel is an emerging solution for the present day concerns about rising oil prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources throughout the world. In current scenario due to shortage of energy resources, biodiesel is very good option for energy security in Pakistan. There are large arable lands with good climatic conditions for large biomass production of biodiesel yielding species. In this study data is compiled to identify plant species bearing seeds rich in oil for biodiesel production. Among them the most important are Pongamia pinnata, Brassica spp. and Ricinus communis. Bio fuel reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce green house gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. This paper suggests decision makers in government of Pakistan to take initiative to develop project for commercial production of biodiesel by using indigenous plants based resources

    Teacher Effectiveness and Digital Competence of High School Teachers in Shopian District, Jammu and Kashmir

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    Effectiveness of teaching is essential condition, to make learning more meaningful, clear and fruitful to a student. Through the present study an attempt has been made by the investigator to study the Teaching Effectiveness and digital competence of High School Teachers in the Shopian District of Jammu and Kashmir. Two scales were adopted and applied in the study namely (i) Teacher Effectiveness Scale (KTES) developed by the investigator (2021) and (ii) the Digital Competence scale developed by Ramakrishna (2017) for collection of the required data. The sample for the study was 330 (190 Male and 140 Female) High school teachers including contractual teachers. Stratified random sampling technique is used in this study. To make the statistical analysis descriptive method has been used by the investigator in the present study. The study reveals that Teacher Effectiveness of female teachers was found to be significantly higher as compared to the male teachers. Also, Teachers having higher levels of Digital Competence were found to be more effective than those having low levels of Digital Competence

    Workers’ Perceptionsof CSR Practices: Analysisof a Textile Organizationin Pakistan

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    n modern world of business,Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has attained a crucialposition to achieve sustained competitive advantage and recent outbreak of corona virus pandemic has increased its importance manifold.Ironically, CSRis still overlookedin many developing countries including Pakistan and itsinternal dimension that relates to the workplace conditions, employees’ wellbeing, their healthandsafety,islargelyneglected.To have in-depth analysisof workers’perceptionsof CSR practices in Pakistan’s industry,a textileorganization,as single case study design was explored using qualitative research methodology. Data was collected through semi-structuredinterviews,direct observations and documentary evidences. Thematic analysissuggeststhat workforcehasmajor concerns abouttheir healthand safety, wellbeing, living salary,provident fund, subsidized food, recreational facilities, appropriate rest intervals and flexible working hours. Absenceof CSR policy and its monitoring system,inadequate firefighting equipment,limited use of masksand unsuitable storage of chemicals,insufficient training and lack of employees’ voice depictedanalarming situationas observed by the authors.The study concludes that, organization needs toaddress these flawsto improveorganizationalhealth and focusing on employee related CSR is critical forreintegrationof Pakistan’s Textile Industry.It also concludes that workers’ perceptions aremore focused on material aspects of CSR as compared to other areasof human development.The study might be useful for organizations’ stakeholders and policy makers
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