5 research outputs found

    Bacteriological Quality of Borehole and Sachet Water from a Community in Southeastern Nigeria

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    Water from boreholes and packaged commercial sachet water from different areas in a community in southern Nigeria was analyzed with membrane filtration for a snapshot of heterotrophic count and coliforms. Two boreholes out of the 20 analyzed had counts of over 500 Cfu/mL and 7 boreholes indicated the presence of coliforms. Sixteen samples out of 20 sachet water brands analyzed showed a regulatory product registration code, whereas 4 samples had no number or code indicating that they were not registered. The heterotrophic count of all sachet water was well within the limit for all samples analyzed, and coliform was detected in only two samples. The overall quality of borehole water in the community studied was rated D (65%), whereas the sachet water was rated C (90%) according to the World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance guidelines. Improvements in water quality structure in the community studied are required to help achieve WHO sustainable development goals on water sanitation. The etiology, virulence properties, epidemiology, and pathogenicity of bacteria associated with borehole and sachet water are also discussed

    Traditional and Artisanal Beverages in Nigeria: Microbial Diversity and Safety Issues

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    A review of up to 90 articles on the microorganisms associated with important artisanal or traditional beverages in Nigeria was carried out. This resulted in an overview of the prevalent microorganisms associated with soymilk, nono (fermented cow milk), tiger nut milk, yoghurt, kunu, zobo, palm wine and the local beers pito and brukutu. The bacteria genera, namely Bacillus, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus, were detected in all nine beverages. On the contrary, this survey resulted in finding that the genera Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Candida, and Penicillium were the eukaryotic microorganisms isolated in all beverages. The occurrence of fungal isolates, which can be responsible for producing mycotoxins, is a concern and shows the need for post-production tests. Overall, there is a low prevalence of bacteria associated with hygiene, especially the Escherichia genus in alcoholic beverages such as palm wine, pito and burukutu, which may be due both to a low acidity and high ethanol content. However, the prevalence of hygiene indicator genera was higher in nonalcoholic drinks, probably because of incorrect practices during processing. The magnitude of the production and sales of unregulated local beverages in Nigeria has reached the stage where significant regulation and food safety standards are required to safeguard public health. An opportunity exists to monitor and characterize the microbial flora of the artisanal beverages using molecular methods at all stages of production and storage

    Diet Diversification and Priming with Kunu: An Indigenous Probiotic Cereal-Based Non-Alcoholic Beverage in Nigeria

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    Kunu is a fermented non-alcoholic beverage consumed all over Nigeria. The drink is served as an alternative to alcohol due to its perceived extreme nourishing and therapeutic properties. Varieties of this beverage are determined mostly by the type of grain, the supplements, sensory additives used, and the process employed during its production. Dietary quality is paramount in nutritional well-being and a key factor in human overall health development. The nutritional quality of grains utilised for Kunu production makes the drink more appealing to a large growing population when compared to some other drinks. Some use Kunu drink as an infant weaning drink, thus serving as a priming beverage for infants due to its rich probiotic and nutritional properties. However, this beverage’s short shelf-life has limited its production scale. This review therefore elaborates succinctly on the diverse therapeutic nutritional properties of the Kunu beverage and the effect of additives and fermentation on the microbial dynamics during Kunu production, as well as the prospect of Kunu in diet diversification and priming for weaning infants
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