159 research outputs found

    High throughput structure–property relationship for additively manufactured 316L/IN625 alloy mixtures leveraging 2-step Bayesian estimation

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    While the fabrication of graded materials by directed energy deposition (DED) has led to accelerated materials discovery, the ability to rapidly explore sufficiently large material composition spaces is limited due to the time-intensive nature of conventional materials characterization techniques. The present study investigates the viability of small punch test (SPT) protocols for rapidly evaluating DED-fabricated alloy mixtures of stainless steel 316L (316L) and Inconel 625 (IN625). The SPT protocols evaluated in this study include both the recently established two-step Bayesian estimation framework as well as the empirical relationships established in prior literature. It is shown that these protocols are capable of reliably and quantitatively tracking the changes in the mechanical properties of the alloy mixtures studied. Enhancement of mechanical properties was observed with the addition of IN625 to 316L, which is attributed to the austenite stabilization in the matrix and the formation of fine ÎŽ - Ni3Nb precipitates. It is shown that CALPHAD-based Scheil model simulations predicted the formation of different precipitate phases for each composition. The novel protocols presented in this paper open new avenues for high throughput material explorations for additive manufacturing

    Mapping pharmacologically-induced functional reorganisation onto the brain’s neurotransmitter landscape

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    To understand how pharmacological interventions can exert their powerful effects on brain function, we need to understand how they engage the brain’s rich neurotransmitter landscape. Here, we bridge microscale molecular chemoarchitecture and pharmacologically-induced macroscale functional reorganisation, by relating the regional distribution of 19 neurotransmitter receptors and transporters obtained from Positron Emission Tomography, and the regional changes in functional MRI connectivity induced by 10 different mind-altering drugs: propofol, sevoflurane, ketamine, LSD, psilocybin, DMT, ayahuasca, MDMA, modafinil, and methylphenidate. Our results reveal that psychoactive drugs exert their effects on brain function by engaging multiple neurotransmitter systems. The effects of both anaesthetics and psychedelics on brain function are organised along hierarchical gradients of brain structure and function. Finally, we show that regional co-susceptibility to pharmacological interventions recapitulates co-susceptibility to disorder-induced structural alterations. Collectively, these results highlight rich statistical patterns relating molecular chemoarchitecture and drug-induced reorganisation of the brain’s functional architecture.

    Enablers for IoT regarding Wearable Medical Devices to Support Healthy Living: The Five Facets

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    Wearables, body sensor networks, ambient, and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies are currently fairly popular in health-related researches and practices. Definitely, wearable technologies are a central fragment of the IoT. Moreover, wearables are becoming more ubiquitous, and they have noteworthy functions and benefits for healthy living and aging. In this context, the success of wearable medical devices is important. Nevertheless, the current understanding in this field needs enhancements. Hence, the authors conducted a study to identify enablers for IoT regarding wearable medical devices. Explicitly, the authors mainly aimed to identify enablers and relevant characteristics to attain, sustain, and improve success. Consequently, a questionnaire was deployed, and data were collected from 511 participants who are real and current wearable medical device users. For analysis, an exploratory factor analysis methodology was applied. The results show that there are five enablers (dependability; design; worthiness; privacy, confidentiality, and security; compatibility) with 17 items, explaining 75.318% of the total variance. Based on these, the authors crafted a checklist for stakeholders to appraise the relevant devices. This chapter contributes to the pertinent body of knowledge concerning the enablers for IoT regarding wearable medical devices to support healthy living with extracted results. This contribution advances the relevant understanding and is going to be helpful for researchers in the field and wearable medical devices product developers

    The apicoplast link to fever-survival and artemisinin-resistance in the malaria parasite.

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    The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to front-line antimalarial artemisinin-combination therapies (ACT) threatens to erase the considerable gains against the disease of the last decade. Here, we develop a large-scale phenotypic screening pipeline and use it to carry out a large-scale forward-genetic phenotype screen in P. falciparum to identify genes allowing parasites to survive febrile temperatures. Screening identifies more than 200 P. falciparum mutants with differential responses to increased temperature. These mutants are more likely to be sensitive to artemisinin derivatives as well as to heightened oxidative stress. Major processes critical for P. falciparum tolerance to febrile temperatures and artemisinin include highly essential, conserved pathways associated with protein-folding, heat shock and proteasome-mediated degradation, and unexpectedly, isoprenoid biosynthesis, which originated from the ancestral genome of the parasite's algal endosymbiont-derived plastid, the apicoplast. Apicoplast-targeted genes in general are upregulated in response to heat shock, as are other Plasmodium genes with orthologs in plant and algal genomes. Plasmodium falciparum parasites appear to exploit their innate febrile-response mechanisms to mediate resistance to artemisinin. Both responses depend on endosymbiont-derived genes in the parasite's genome, suggesting a link to the evolutionary origins of Plasmodium parasites in free-living ancestors

    SARS-CoV-2 vaccination modelling for safe surgery to save lives: data from an international prospective cohort study

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    Background: Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 vaccination could support safer elective surgery. Vaccine numbers are limited so this study aimed to inform their prioritization by modelling. Methods: The primary outcome was the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent one COVID-19-related death in 1 year. NNVs were based on postoperative SARS-CoV-2 rates and mortality in an international cohort study (surgical patients), and community SARS-CoV-2 incidence and case fatality data (general population). NNV estimates were stratified by age (18-49, 50-69, 70 or more years) and type of surgery. Best- and worst-case scenarios were used to describe uncertainty. Results: NNVs were more favourable in surgical patients than the general population. The most favourable NNVs were in patients aged 70 years or more needing cancer surgery (351; best case 196, worst case 816) or non-cancer surgery (733; best case 407, worst case 1664). Both exceeded the NNV in the general population (1840; best case 1196, worst case 3066). NNVs for surgical patients remained favourable at a range of SARS-CoV-2 incidence rates in sensitivity analysis modelling. Globally, prioritizing preoperative vaccination of patients needing elective surgery ahead of the general population could prevent an additional 58 687 (best case 115 007, worst case 20 177) COVID-19-related deaths in 1 year. Conclusion: As global roll out of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination proceeds, patients needing elective surgery should be prioritized ahead of the general population

    A Framework for a Smart City Design : Digital Transformation in the Helsinki Smart City

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    Recently, there has been substantial interest in the concept of a smart city, as it has been a viable solution to the dilemmas created by the urbanization of cities. Digital technologies—such as Internet-of-Things, artificial intelligence, big data, and geospatial technologies—are closely associated with the concept of a smart city. By means of modern digital technologies, cities aim to optimize their performance and services. Further, cities actively endorse modern digital technologies to foster digitalization and the emergence of data-based innovations and a knowledge economy. In this paper, a framework for a smart city design is presented. The framework considers a smart city from the perspective of four dimensions—strategy, technology, governance, and stakeholders. The framework is complemented with sub-dimensions, and the purpose of this framework is to strengthen the governance and sustainability of smart city initiatives. Further, the proposed framework is applied to the Helsinki smart city, the capital of Finland. The objective is to analyse the Helsinki smart city through dimensions presented in the framework and learn how the city of Helsinki governs and implements its smart city initiativespeerReviewe