381 research outputs found

    Obesity and risk of infections: results from men and women in the Swedish National March Cohort.

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    Abstract Background Previous studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and infections, but the literature on type-specific community acquired infections is still limited. Methods We included 39 163 Swedish adults who completed a questionnaire in September 1997 and were followed through record-linkages until December 2016. Information on BMI was self-reported and infections were identified from the Swedish National Patient Register using International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes. We fitted multivariable Cox proportional hazards models for time-to-first-event analysis, and we used extensions of the standard Cox model when repeated events were included. Results During a 19-year follow-up 32% of the subjects had at least one infection requiring health care contact, leading to a total of 27 675 events. We found an increased incidence of any infection in obese women [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12; 1.33] and obese men (HR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.09; 1.43) compared with normal weight subjects. For specific infections, higher incidences were observed for skin infections in both genders (HR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.47; 2.12 for obese females and HR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.33; 2.28 for obese males) and gastrointestinal tract infections (HR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.19; 1.75), urinary tract infections (HR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.08; 1.55) and sepsis (HR = 2.09; 95% CI = 1.46; 2.99) in obese females. When accounting for repeated events, estimates similar to the aforementioned ones were found. Conclusions Obesity was associated with an increased risk of infections in both genders. Results from multiple-failure survival analysis were consistent with those from classic Cox models

    Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Risk of Breast Cancer

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    Background: A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. Design: The Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 1991–1992. Consumption of foods and beverages was measured at enrollment using a food frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score was constructed based on the consumption of alcohol, vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals, fish, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, and dairy and meat products. Relative risks (RR) for breast cancer and specific tumor characteristics (invasiveness, histological type, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, malignancy grade and stage) associated with this score were estimated using Cox regression controlling for potential confounders. Results: 1,278 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer overall, or with specific breast tumor characteristics. A RR (95% confidence interval) for breast cancer associated with a two-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score was 1.08 (1.00–1.15) in all women, and 1.10 (1.01–1.21) and 1.02 (0.91–1.15) in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. When alcohol was excluded from the Mediterranean diet score, results became not statistically significant. Conclusions: Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern did not decrease breast cancer risk in this cohort of relatively young women

    Cigarette smoking and risk of borderline and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

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    Studies regarding the association between smoking and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between smoking and EOC, overall and according to invasiveness and histological subtype in a cohort of women with a high proportion of smokers at enrolment. We followed 103,081 women, aged 30-50 years in 1991/1992, from the Norwegian-Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort. The women completed a questionnaire on personal characteristics and exposures at enrolment and were subsequently followed with linkages to national registers through December 31, 2004. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate hazard ratio (RR) of EOC with 95% confidence intervals 1,2 Several other factors such as a late age at menarche, an early menopause, a late age at first and last birth, breast feeding and physical activity have been linked with decreased risk, while obesity, postmenopausal hormone therapy use, and alcohol consumption have been linked with increased risk. However, many studies did not find these associations. Several etiologic hypotheses; the incessant ovulation, the retrograde transport, the inflammation, exogenous carcinogens, and some related to specific hormones, have been postulated. None of the suggested hypotheses so far can explain all the epidemiological data

    The Nordic Twin Study on Cancer - NorTwinCan

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    Nordic twin studies have played a critical role in understanding cancer etiology and elucidating the nature of familial effects on site-specific cancers. The NorTwinCan consortium is a collaborative effort that capitalizes on unique research advantages made possible through the Nordic system of registries. It was constructed by linking the population-based twin registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden to their country-specific national cancer and cause-of-death registries. These linkages enable the twins to be followed many decades for cancer incidence and mortality. To date, two major linkages have been conducted: NorTwinCan I in 2011-2012 and NorTwinCan II in 2018. Overall, there are 315,413 eligible twins, 57,236 incident cancer cases and 58 years of follow-up, on average. In the initial phases of our work, NorTwinCan established the world's most comprehensive twin database for studying cancer, developed novel analytical approaches tailored to address specific research considerations within the context of the Nordic data and leveraged these models and data in research publications that provide the most accurate estimates of heritability and familial risk of cancers reported in the literature to date. Our findings indicate an excess familial risk for nearly all cancers and demonstrate that the incidence of cancer among twins mirrors the rate in the general population. They also revealed that twin concordance for cancer most often manifests across, rather than within, cancer sites, and we are currently focusing on the analysis of these cross-cancer associations.Peer reviewe
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