183 research outputs found

    INNOVATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE INVESTMENT CASTING OF PRECIOUS ALLOYS

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    Various techniques and technologies have been developed and fine-tuned in recent years which have made it possible to improve the investment casting process and extend its field of applicability such as, for example, the application of rapid prototyping, rapid manufacturing, casting simulation and "non-traditional" materials. In the past decades, companies working in the precious metals sector could keep in their collection the same products for a long period, eventually applying minor modifications. Nowadays innovation is considered one of the key point for the success of the production, coupled to an increased attention towards quality and reliability of the product. The present paper deals with an analysis of some of the innovations introduced into the investment casting of precious metals in the recent years, in terms of process analysis, new materials involved for the fabrication and metal alloys

    MIG and TIG Joining of AA1070 Aluminium Sheets with Different Surface Preparations

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    In this work, AA1070 aluminium alloy sheets are joined using TIG and MIG welding after three different edge preparations. Shearing, water jet and plasma-cut processes were used to cut sheets, subsequently welded using ER5356 and ER4043 filler metals for TIG and MIG, respectively. Mechanical properties of the obtained sheets were assessed through tensile tests obtaining a relation between sheet preparation and welding tightness. Micro-hardness measures were performed to evaluate the effects of both welding and cutting processes on the micro-hardness of the alloy, highlighting that TIG welding gives rise to inhomogeneous micro-hardness behaviour. After tensile tests, surface fractures were observed employing scanning electron microscopy to highlight the relation between tensile properties and edge preparations. Fractures show severe oxidation in the water jet cut specimens, ductile fractures and gas porosities

    Aluminium alloy addition effects on the behaviour of soft magnetic materials at low frequencies

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    The present paper focused on the effects of aluminium alloy addition on the behaviour of soft magnetic materials at low frequencies. The microstructure investigation reveals that for materials with high aluminium contents, the pores are oriented near or surrounding the aluminium particles. The microstructure investigation reveals that for materials with high aluminium contents, the pores are oriented near or surrounding the aluminium particles, as well as after heat treatment shows coarse-grained structure with a minimum number of inclusions within the grains and at the grain boundaries. Results show that the magnetic properties are dependent on the structural state of the investigated material. Magnetic properties increased with decreasing density due to the enhanced densification by means of applied pressing pressure and promote porosity reduction during heat treatment

    Rapid Characterization Method for SMC Materials for a Preliminary Selection

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    In electrical machines, laminated steels are commonly adopted as soft magnetic materials, while for permanent magnets, sintered ferrites and NdFeB are the most common solutions. On the other hand, the growing demand for volume reduction with the increment of efficiency leads to the necessity of exploring other magnetic materials able to face the challenge better than the traditional ones. Bonded magnets have been used to replace sintered magnets, obtaining a better use of space and particular magnetic properties. Instead, for the magnetic circuit, Soft Magnetic Composites (SMC) allow realizing very complex magnetic design (3D path for flux) with iron loss reduction at medium-high frequencies, especially for the eddy currents loss contribution. On the other hand, SMC materials have such drawbacks as low mechanical properties and high hysteresis losses. For this reason, in this work, different studies considering several variables have been carried out. SMCs were produced through a moulding process; inorganic and organic layers to cover ferromagnetic particles were used, adopting different coating processes. Particu-lar tests have been performed for a quicker and more indicative overview of the materials ob-tained. The single sheet tester (SST) is easier than traditional toroidal methods; on the other hand, the multiplicity of variables affects the SMC materials and their process. For this reason, coercivity and conductibility tests permit rapid measurement and provide a direct classification of the produced SMCs, providing the main information needed to select suitable materials. Re-sults highlighted that choosing the more appropriate SMC material is possible after using these simple preliminary tests. After these tests, it was possible to argue that with 0.2 wt% of phenolic resin as the organic layer (and compaction pressure of 800 MPa), it is possible to produce a good SMC. On the other hand, the SMC with 0.2 wt% of epoxy resin (and compaction pressure of 800 MPa) gives a minor coercivity value. Additionally, despite the SMC with the inorganic layer, 0.2 wt% of nano-ferrites showing the best coercivity values (specifically for vacuum treatment at 600 ¬įC), their resistivity was unsatisfactory

    TroŇ°enje uslijed klizanja na presvuńćenom pred-legiranom sinteriranom krom ńćeliku

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    The present paper deals with the sliding wear behaviour of prealloyed chromium sintered steel with graphite powder added in the amount of 0.7 %. The wear characteristics, such as profilograms, wear tracks morphology and wear curves of the sintered specimens and Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) coated were investigated through pinon-disk tests. The specimens were sintered in pusher furnace at the temperature of 1180 ¬įC for 40 minutes in an atmosphere of 25 % H2+75 % N2. The results of profilograms, the wear curves and the wear tracks showed positive effect of coating on the wear resistance of the tested specimens.Ovaj rad se bavi karakteristikama kliznog troŇ°enja pred-legiranog sinteriranog krom ńćelika s dodatkom grafitnog praha u iznosu od 0,7%. ObiljeŇĺja troŇ°enja, kao Ň°to su profilograf, morfologija tragova troŇ°enja i krivulje troŇ°enja sinteriranih uzoraka i uzoraka fizikalno presvuńćenih u parnoj fazi (PVD) su istraŇĺivani pomońáu pin-disk tribometra. Uzorci su sinterirani u potisnoj peńái na temperaturi od 1180 ¬įC tijekom 40 minuta u atmosferi 25% H2 75% N2. Rezultati profilograma, krivulja troŇ°enja i tragovi habanja pokazali su pozitivan uńćinak prevlake na otpornosti na troŇ°enje testiranih uzoraka

    Design and Manufacturing of a Nd-Doped Phosphate Glass-Based Jewel

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    This paper reports the results of the designing, manufacturing and characterization of a jewel obtained by means of coupling the dogmas of industrial design to the analytical engineering approach. The key role in the design of the jewel was played by an in-house synthesized Neodymium (Nd)-doped phosphate glass, selected due to its easy handling and capability to change color according to the incident light wavelength. The glass core was covered by a metal alloy to mitigate its relatively high fragility and sensitivity to thermal shock and, at the same time, to highlight and preserve its beauty. The selection of the proper metal alloy, having thermo-mechanical properties compatible with those exhibited by the glass, was carried out by means of Ashby’s maps, a powerful tool commonly adopted in the field of industrial design

    Effect of granulometry and oxygen content on SMC magnetic properties

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    The interest around the adoption of Soft Magnetic Composite materials (SMC) in the realization of electric machines, or parts of electric machines, is continuously increasing. The main reason lies on the opportunity to realize magnetic circuits following a 3D design procedure, which is not allowed with the adoption of the traditional lamination sheets. This is not the only reason, as a lot of research is being carried out on the losses distribution in the magnetic material, particularly as function of the frequency. In this paper different iron powders have been analyzed to investigate the impact of the granulometry on the SMC performance; in particular the grain size and the oxygen content have been considered variable parameters. The materials, prepared, compacted and tested in our laboratories, have been characterized to obtain the magnetic characteristic and information about the iron losses

    Study of an Impact Mill-Based Mechanical Method for NdFeB Magnet Recycling

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    Nowadays, the circular economy is gaining more and more attention in sectors where the raw material supply is critical for both cost and geo-political reasons. Moreover, the environmental impact issue calls for recycling. From this perspective, the recovery of rare earth elements represents a strategic point. On the other hand, the high cost and the dangerous standard recovery methods that apply to NdFeB magnets limits options for traditional recycling. A new mechanical method is proposed, not requiring hydrogen, high temperature, or chemical processes, but instead using an impact mill designed to operate in vacuum. A traditional impact mill operating in a glove box filled with Ar atmosphere has also been used for comparison. The obtained NdFeB powders were analyzed in terms of magnetic properties and chemical composition, particularly in terms of the oxygen content

    Case Study of the Tensile Fracture Investigation of Additive Manufactured Austenitic Stainless Steels Treated at Cryogenic Conditions

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    Additive manufacturing is a key enabling technology in the manufacture of highly complex shapes, having very few geometric limitations compared to traditional manufacturing processes. The present paper aims at investigating mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures for a 316L austenitic stainless steel, due to the wide possible cryogenic applications such as liquid gas confinement or superconductors. The starting powders have been processed by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) and tested in the as-built conditions and after stress relieving treatments. Mechanical properties at 298, 77 and 4.2 K from tensile testing are presented together with fracture surfaces investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results show that high tensile strength at cryogenic temperature is characteristic for all samples, with ultimate tensile strength as high as 1246 MPa at 4.2 K and 55% maximum total elongation at 77 K. This study can constitute a solid basis for investigating 316L components by LPBF for specific applications in cryogenic conditions
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