1,877 research outputs found

    Final Muon Cooling For A Muon Collider

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    To explore the new energy frontier, a new generation of particle accelerators is needed. Muon colliders are a promising alternative if muon cooling can be made to work. Muons are 200 times heavier than electrons, so they produce less synchrotron radiation, and they behave like point particles. However, they have a short lifetime of 2.2 őľs and the beam is more difficult to cool than an electron beam. The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) was created to develop concepts and technologies required by a muon collider. An important effort has been made in the program to design and optimize a muon beam cooling system. The goal is to achieve the small beam emittance required by a muon collider. This work explores a final ionization cooling system using magnetic quadrupole lattices with a low enough ő≤* region to cool the beam to the required limit with available low Z absorbers

    An√°lisis jurisprudencial en materia de acci√≥n directa y llamamiento en garant√≠a a las compa√Ī√≠as de seguros

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    Ampliamente se han referido las Cortes a las dos figuras jurídicas llamamiento en garantía y acción directa en materia de responsabilidad civil extracontractual. De esta manera se ha conceptualizado lo que debe entenderse por ambas, cuáles son sus requisitos estructurantes, y cuál es su función directa respecto de la sociedad civil figuras apoyadas en la actualidad en la importancia del resarcimiento de los perjuicios de la víctima y que cobran todo su valor jurídico a partir de la expedición de la ley 45 de 1990.Especialista en Derecho de SegurosEspecializació

    Myc Inhibits p27-Induced Erythroid Differentiation of Leukemia Cells by Repressing Erythroid Master Genes without Reversing p27-Mediated Cell Cycle Arrest

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    Inhibition of differentiation has been proposed as an important mechanism for Myc-induced tumorigenesis, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. We have established a genetically defined differentiation model in human leukemia K562 cells by conditional expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27 (inducible by Zn2+) and Myc (activatable by 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen). Induction of p27 resulted in erythroid differentiation, accompanied by Cdk inhibition and G1 arrest. Interestingly, activation of Myc inhibited p27-mediated erythroid differentiation without affecting p27-mediated proliferation arrest. Microarray-based gene expression indicated that, in the presence of p27, Myc blocked the upregulation of several erythroid-cell-specific genes, including NFE2, JUNB, and GATA1 (transcription factors with a pivotal role in erythropoiesis). Moreover, Myc also blocked the upregulation of Mad1, a transcriptional antagonist of Myc that is able to induce erythroid differentiation. Cotransfection experiments demonstrated that Myc-mediated inhibition of differentiation is partly dependent on the repression of Mad1 and GATA1. In conclusion, this model demonstrates that Myc-mediated inhibition of differentiation depends on the regulation of a specific gene program, whereas it is independent of p27-mediated cell cycle arrest. Our results support the hypothesis that differentiation inhibition is an important Myc tumorigenic mechanism that is independent of cell proliferation. Copyright © 2008, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.This study was supported by grants CICYT SAF05-00461 from the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC), ISCIII-RETIC RD06/0020 from the Spanish Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, API-17-05 from the Fundación Marques de Valdecilla (to J.L), and FIS04/1083 (to M.D.D). J.C.A., G.B., and N.F. were supported by fellowships from the MEC, and V.T. was supported by a Lady Tata Memorial Trust award.Peer Reviewe

    Joint Survey Processing I: Compact oddballs in the COSMOS field -- low-luminosity Quasars at z > 6?

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    The faint-end slope of the quasar luminosity function at z~6 and its implication on the role of quasars in reionizing the intergalactic medium at early times has been an outstanding problem for some time. The identification of faint high-redshift quasars with luminosities of 25mag, with ~30% of sources having their flux contaminated by foreground objects when the seeing resolution is ~0.7". We mitigate these issues by performing a pixel-level joint processing of ground and space-based data from Subaru/HSC and HST/ACS. We create a deconfused catalog over the 1.64 deg² of the COSMOS field, after accounting for spatial varying PSFs and astrometric differences between the two datasets. We identify twelve low-luminosity (M_(UV) ~ -21 mag) z>6 quasar candidates through (i) their red color measured between ACS/F814W and HSC/i-band and (ii) their compactness in the space-based data. We estimate that late-type stars could contribute up to 50% to our sample. Our constraints on the faint end of the quasar luminosity function at z~6.4 suggests a negligibly small contribution to reionization compared to the star-forming galaxy population. The confirmation of our candidates and the evolution of number density with redshift could provide better insights into how supermassive galaxies grew in the first billion years of cosmic time

    Mapping H4K20me3 onto the chromatin landscape of senescent cells indicates a function in control of cell senescence and tumor suppression through preservation of genetic and epigenetic stability

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    Background: Histone modification H4K20me3 and its methyltransferase SUV420H2 have been implicated in suppression of tumorigenesis. The underlying mechanism is unclear, although H4K20me3 abundance increases during cellular senescence, a stable proliferation arrest and tumor suppressor process, triggered by diverse molecular cues, including activated oncogenes. Here, we investigate the function of H4K20me3 in senescence and tumor suppression. Results: Using immunofluorescence and ChIP-seq we determine the distribution of H4K20me3 in proliferating and senescent human cells. Altered H4K20me3 in senescence is coupled to H4K16ac and DNA methylation changes in senescence. In senescent cells, H4K20me3 is especially enriched at DNA sequences contained within specialized domains of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF), as well as specific families of non-genic and genic repeats. Altered H4K20me3 does not correlate strongly with changes in gene expression between proliferating and senescent cells; however, in senescent cells, but not proliferating cells, H4K20me3 enrichment at gene bodies correlates inversely with gene expression, reflecting de novo accumulation of H4K20me3 at repressed genes in senescent cells, including at genes also repressed in proliferating cells. Although elevated SUV420H2 upregulates H4K20me3, this does not accelerate senescence of primary human cells. However, elevated SUV420H2/H4K20me3 reinforces oncogene-induced senescence-associated proliferation arrest and slows tumorigenesis in vivo. Conclusions: These results corroborate a role for chromatin in underpinning the senescence phenotype but do not support a major role for H4K20me3 in initiation of senescence. Rather, we speculate that H4K20me3 plays a role in heterochromatinization and stabilization of the epigenome and genome of pre-malignant, oncogene-expressing senescent cells, thereby suppressing epigenetic and genetic instability and contributing to long-term senescence-mediated tumor suppression

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an