1,112 research outputs found

    Importance of Variant Interpretation in Whole-Exome Molecular Autopsy: Population-Based Case Series.

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Potentially lethal cardiac channelopathies/cardiomyopathies may underlie a substantial portion of sudden unexplained death in the young (SUDY). The whole-exome molecular autopsy represents the latest approach to postmortem genetic testing for SUDY. However, proper variant adjudication in the setting of SUDY can be challenging. METHODS: From January 2012 through December 2013, 25 consecutive cases of SUDY from 1 to 40 years of age (average age at death 27±5.7 years; 13 white, 12 black) from Cook County, Illinois, were referred after a negative (n=16) or equivocal (n=9) conventional autopsy. A whole-exome molecular autopsy with analysis of 99 sudden death-susceptibility genes was performed. The predicted pathogenicity of ultrarare, nonsynonymous variants was determined using the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. RESULTS: Overall, 27 ultrarare nonsynonymous variants were seen in 16/25 (64%) victims of SUDY. Among black individuals, 9/12 (75%) had an ultrarare nonsynonymous variant compared with 7/13 (54%) white individuals. Of the 27 variants, 10 were considered pathogenic or likely pathogenic in 7/25 (28%) individuals in accordance with the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in 5/16 (31%) of autopsy-negative cases and in 2/6 (33%) victims of SUDY with equivocal findings of cardiomyopathy. Overall, 6 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in 4/25 (16%) cases were congruent with the phenotypic findings at autopsy and therefore considered clinically actionable. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-exome molecular autopsy with gene-specific surveillance is an effective approach for the detection of potential pathogenic variants in SUDY cases. However, systematic variant adjudication is crucial to ensure accurate and proper care for surviving family members

    Beyond Outerplanarity

    Full text link
    We study straight-line drawings of graphs where the vertices are placed in convex position in the plane, i.e., convex drawings. We consider two families of graph classes with nice convex drawings: outer kk-planar graphs, where each edge is crossed by at most kk other edges; and, outer kk-quasi-planar graphs where no kk edges can mutually cross. We show that the outer kk-planar graphs are (4k+1+1)(\lfloor\sqrt{4k+1}\rfloor+1)-degenerate, and consequently that every outer kk-planar graph can be (4k+1+2)(\lfloor\sqrt{4k+1}\rfloor+2)-colored, and this bound is tight. We further show that every outer kk-planar graph has a balanced separator of size O(k)O(k). This implies that every outer kk-planar graph has treewidth O(k)O(k). For fixed kk, these small balanced separators allow us to obtain a simple quasi-polynomial time algorithm to test whether a given graph is outer kk-planar, i.e., none of these recognition problems are NP-complete unless ETH fails. For the outer kk-quasi-planar graphs we prove that, unlike other beyond-planar graph classes, every edge-maximal nn-vertex outer kk-quasi planar graph has the same number of edges, namely 2(k1)n(2k12)2(k-1)n - \binom{2k-1}{2}. We also construct planar 3-trees that are not outer 33-quasi-planar. Finally, we restrict outer kk-planar and outer kk-quasi-planar drawings to \emph{closed} drawings, where the vertex sequence on the boundary is a cycle in the graph. For each kk, we express closed outer kk-planarity and \emph{closed outer kk-quasi-planarity} in extended monadic second-order logic. Thus, closed outer kk-planarity is linear-time testable by Courcelle's Theorem.Comment: Appears in the Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Graph Drawing and Network Visualization (GD 2017

    Novel Characteristics of Valveless Pumping

    Get PDF
    This study investigates the occurrence of valveless pumping in a fluidfilled system consisting of two open tanks connected by an elastic tube. We show that directional flow can be achieved by introducing a periodic pinching applied at an asymmetrical location along the tube, and that the flow direction depends on the pumping frequency. We propose a relation between wave propagation velocity, tube length, and resonance frequencies associated with shifts in the pumping direction using numerical simulations. The eigenfrequencies of the system are estimated from the linearized system, and we show that these eigenfrequencies constitute the resonance frequencies and the horizontal slope frequencies of the system; 'horizontal slope frequency' being a new concept. A simple model is suggested, explaining the effect of the gravity driven part of the oscillation observed in response to the tank and tube diameter changes. Results are partly compared with experimental findings.Art. no. 22450

    Triadin Knockout Syndrome Is Absent in a Multi-Center Molecular Autopsy Cohort of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Sudden Unexplained Death in the Young and Is Extremely Rare in the General Population

    Get PDF
    Background: Triadin knockout syndrome (TKOS) is a potentially lethal arrhythmia disorder caused by recessively inherited null variants in TRDN-encoded cardiac triadin. Despite its malignant phenotype, the prevalence of TKOS in sudden infant death syndrome and sudden unexplained death in the young is unknown. Methods: Exome sequencing was performed on 599 sudden infant death syndrome and 258 sudden unexplained death in the young cases. Allele frequencies of all TRDN null variants identified in the cardiac-specific isoform of TRDN in the Genome Aggregation Database were used to determine the estimated prevalence and ethnic distribution of TKOS. Results: No triadin null individuals were identified in 599 sudden infant death syndrome and 258 sudden unexplained death in the young exomes. Using the Genome Aggregation Database, we estimate the overall prevalence of TKOS to be ≈1:22.7 million individuals. However, TKOS prevalence is 5.5-fold higher in those of African descent (≈1:4.1 million). Conclusions: TKOS is an exceedingly rare clinical entity that does not contribute meaningfully to either sudden infant death syndrome or sudden unexplained death in the young. However, despite its rarity and absence in large sudden death cohorts, TKOS remains a malignant and potentially lethal disorder which requires further research to better care for these patients

    Triangle-Free Penny Graphs: Degeneracy, Choosability, and Edge Count

    Full text link
    We show that triangle-free penny graphs have degeneracy at most two, list coloring number (choosability) at most three, diameter D=Ω(n)D=\Omega(\sqrt n), and at most min(2nΩ(n),2nD2)\min\bigl(2n-\Omega(\sqrt n),2n-D-2\bigr) edges.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figures. To appear at the 25th International Symposium on Graph Drawing and Network Visualization (GD 2017

    Microvascular function is selectively impaired in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and sarcomere myofilament gene mutations.

    Get PDF
    ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to assess myocardial blood flow (MBF) using positron emission tomography in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) according to genetic status.BackgroundCoronary microvascular dysfunction is an important feature of HCM, associated with ventricular remodeling and heart failure. We recently demonstrated the increased prevalence of systolic dysfunction in patients with HCM with sarcomere myofilament gene mutations and postulated an association between genetic status and coronary microvascular dysfunction.MethodsMaximum MBF (intravenous dipyridamole, 0.56 mg/kg; Dip-MBF) was measured using 13N-labeled ammonia in 61 patients with HCM (age 38 ± 14 years), genotyped by automatic DNA sequencing of 8 myofilament-encoding genes (myosin-binding protein C, beta-myosin heavy chain, regulatory and essential light chains, troponin T, troponin I, troponin C, alpha-tropomyosin, and alpha-actin). In 35 patients, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed.ResultsFifty-three mutations were identified in 42 of the 61 patients (genotype positive; 69%). Despite similar clinical profiles, genotype-positive patients with HCM showed substantially lower Dip-MBF compared with that of genotype-negative patients (1.7 ± 0.6 ml/min/g vs. 2.4 ± 1.2 ml/min/g; p < 0.02). A Dip-MBF <1.5 ml/min/g had 81% positive predictive value for genotype-positive status and implied a 3.5-fold independent increase in likelihood of carrying myofilament gene mutations (hazard ratio: 3.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 11.7; p = 0.04). At cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, the prevalence of late gadolinium enhancement was greater in genotype-positive patients (22 of 23 [96%] compared with 8 of 12 [67%] genotype-negative patients; p = 0.038).ConclusionsPatients with HCM with sarcomere myofilament mutations are characterized by more severe impairment of microvascular function and increased prevalence of myocardial fibrosis, compared with genotype-negative individuals. These findings suggest a direct link between sarcomere gene mutations and adverse remodeling of the microcirculation in HCM, accounting for the increased long-term prevalence of ventricular dysfunction and heart failure in genotype-positive patients

    Recognizing and Drawing IC-planar Graphs

    Full text link
    IC-planar graphs are those graphs that admit a drawing where no two crossed edges share an end-vertex and each edge is crossed at most once. They are a proper subfamily of the 1-planar graphs. Given an embedded IC-planar graph GG with nn vertices, we present an O(n)O(n)-time algorithm that computes a straight-line drawing of GG in quadratic area, and an O(n3)O(n^3)-time algorithm that computes a straight-line drawing of GG with right-angle crossings in exponential area. Both these area requirements are worst-case optimal. We also show that it is NP-complete to test IC-planarity both in the general case and in the case in which a rotation system is fixed for the input graph. Furthermore, we describe a polynomial-time algorithm to test whether a set of matching edges can be added to a triangulated planar graph such that the resulting graph is IC-planar

    Dysfunction of NaV1.4, a skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, in sudden infant death syndrome: a case-control study.

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of post-neonatal infant death in high-income countries. Central respiratory system dysfunction seems to contribute to these deaths. Excitation that drives contraction of skeletal respiratory muscles is controlled by the sodium channel NaV1.4, which is encoded by the gene SCN4A. Variants in NaV1.4 that directly alter skeletal muscle excitability can cause myotonia, periodic paralysis, congenital myopathy, and myasthenic syndrome. SCN4A variants have also been found in infants with life-threatening apnoea and laryngospasm. We therefore hypothesised that rare, functionally disruptive SCN4A variants might be over-represented in infants who died from SIDS. METHODS: We did a case-control study, including two consecutive cohorts that included 278 SIDS cases of European ancestry and 729 ethnically matched controls without a history of cardiovascular, respiratory, or neurological disease. We compared the frequency of rare variants in SCN4A between groups (minor allele frequency <0·00005 in the Exome Aggregation Consortium). We assessed biophysical characterisation of the variant channels using a heterologous expression system. FINDINGS: Four (1·4%) of the 278 infants in the SIDS cohort had a rare functionally disruptive SCN4A variant compared with none (0%) of 729 ethnically matched controls (p=0·0057). INTERPRETATION: Rare SCN4A variants that directly alter NaV1.4 function occur in infants who had died from SIDS. These variants are predicted to significantly alter muscle membrane excitability and compromise respiratory and laryngeal function. These findings indicate that dysfunction of muscle sodium channels is a potentially modifiable risk factor in a subset of infant sudden deaths. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust, National Institute for Health Research, the British Heart Foundation, Biotronik, Cardiac Risk in the Young, Higher Education Funding Council for England, Dravet Syndrome UK, the Epilepsy Society, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development of the National Institutes of Health, and the Mayo Clinic Windland Smith Rice Comprehensive Sudden Cardiac Death Program

    Occult Hepatitis B Infection in Patients With Cryptogenic Liver Cirrhosis in Southwest of Iran

    Get PDF
    Background: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has a broad spectrum of manifestation, ranging from silent carrier state to advanced cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The persistence of HBV DNA in serum and hepatocytes of the cirrhotic patient could be detected by molecular techniques in spite of negative HBV serologic markers. Objectives: This case-control study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of occult HBV infection (OBI) in patients with cryptogenic liver cirrhosis in comparison with healthy subjects. Patients and Methods: Of 165 patients with liver cirrhosis, 50 consecutive patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis and 80 healthy individual without any risk factors as a control group were enrolled in this study. Their sera were tested for HBV DNA using nested PCR method. Results: Of 50 patients with cryptogenic cirrhotic, 36 (72%) were male. The mean age of patients was 53.34 ± 14.73 years; 80 healthy subjects were selected as control group with mean age of 32.65 ± 8.51 years; 7 (14%) of the patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis showed positive HBV DNA by PCR, while HBV DNA was negative for the control group (P = 0.0001); 4 (57%) cases with positive HBV shown by PCR were negative for anti-HBc and anti-HBs tests. The mean level of transaminases was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis. There were no significant differences in demographic parameters, transaminases level and degree of hepatic failure among cirrhotic patients with and without OBI. Conclusions: The prevalence of OBI was relatively high in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis. OBI was found among the patients above 40 years old. Prospective cohort studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of OBI

    Risk of death in the long QT syndrome when a sibling has died

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Sudden death of a sibling is thought to be associated with greater risk of death in long QT syndrome (LQTS). However, there is no evidence of such an association. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to test the hypothesis that sudden death of a sibling is a risk factor for death or aborted cardiac arrest (ACA) in patients with LQTS. METHODS: We examined all probands and first-degree and second-degree relatives in the International Long QT Registry from birth to age 40 years with QTc >/= 0.45 s. Covariates included sibling death, QTc, gender by age, syncope, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and beta-blocker treatment. End points were (1) severe events (ACA, LQTS-related death) and (2) any cardiac event (syncope, ACA, or LQTS-related death). RESULTS: Of 1915 subjects, 270 had a sibling who died. There were 213 severe events and 829 total cardiac events. More subjects with history of sibling death received beta-blocker therapy. Sibling death was not significantly associated with risk of ACA or LQTS-related death, but was associated with increased risk of syncope. QTc >/= 0.53 s (hazard ratio 2.5, P <.01), history of syncope (hazard ratio 6.1, P <.01), and gender were strongly associated with risk of ACA or LQTS-related death. CONCLUSION: Sudden death of a sibling prompted more aggressive treatment but did not predict risk of death or ACA, whereas QTc >/= 0.53 s, gender, and syncope predicted this risk. All subjects should receive appropriate beta-blocker therapy. The decision to implant an ICD should be based on an individual's own risk characteristics (QTc, gender, and history of syncope)
    corecore