50 research outputs found

    Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality

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    BACKGROUND: Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM) fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM). RESULTS: Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82) transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very few seeds. GM fruit quality, with the exception of a higher ÎČ-carotene level, did not show any difference, neither technological (colour, firmness, dry matter, °Brix, pH) nor chemical (titratable acidity, organic acids, lycopene, tomatine, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity – TEAC), when compared to that of fruits from control line. Highly significant differences in quality traits exist between the tomato F1 commercial hybrid Allflesh and the three UC 82 genotypes tested, regardless of whether or not they are GM. Total yield per plant did not differ between GM and parental line UC 82. Fruit number was increased in GM lines, and GM fruit weight was decreased. CONCLUSION: The use in the diet of fruits from a new line or variety introduces much greater changes than the consumption of GM fruits in comparison to its genetic background. Parthenocarpic fruits, produced under open field conditions, contained 10-fold less seeds than control fruits. Thus parthenocarpy caused by DefH9-RI-iaaM gene represents also a tool for mitigating GM seeds dispersal in the environment

    Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting biochemical and morphological fruit properties in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

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    Eggplant berries are a source of health-promoting metabolites including antioxidant and nutraceutical compounds, mainly anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid; however, they also contain some anti-nutritional compounds such as steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) and saponins, which are responsible for the bitter taste of the flesh and with potential toxic effects on humans. Up to now, Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for the metabolic content are far from being characterized in eggplant, thus hampering the application of breeding programs aimed at improving its fruit quality. Here we report on the identification of some QTL for the fruit metabolic content in an F2 intraspecific mapping population of 156 individuals, obtained by crossing the eggplant breeding lines ‘305E40’ x ‘67/3’. The same population was previously employed for the development of a RAD-tag based linkage map and the identification of QTL associated to morphological and physiological traits. The mapping population was biochemically characterized for both fruit basic qualitative data, like dry matter, °Brix, sugars and organic acids, as well as for health-related compounds such chlorogenic acid, (the main flesh monomeric phenol), the two peel anthocyanins (i.e. delphinidin-3-rutinoside (D3R) and delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroylrutinoside)-5-glucoside (nasunin)) and the two main steroidal glycoalkaloids, solasonine and solamargine. For most of the traits, one major QTL (PVE ≄ 10%) was spotted and putative orthologies with other Solanaceae crops are discussed. The present results supply valuable information to eggplant breeders on the inheritance of key fruit quality traits, thus providing potential tools to assist future breeding programs

    Design, construction and operation of the ProtoDUNE-SP Liquid Argon TPC

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    The ProtoDUNE-SP detector is a single-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) that was constructed and operated in the CERN North Area at the end of the H4 beamline. This detector is a prototype for the first far detector module of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), which will be constructed at the Sandford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, U.S.A. The ProtoDUNE-SP detector incorporates full-size components as designed for DUNE and has an active volume of 7 × 6 × 7.2 m3. The H4 beam delivers incident particles with well-measured momenta and high-purity particle identification. ProtoDUNE-SP\u27s successful operation between 2018 and 2020 demonstrates the effectiveness of the single-phase far detector design. This paper describes the design, construction, assembly and operation of the detector components

    Searching for solar KDAR with DUNE

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    The observation of 236 MeV muon neutrinos from kaon-decay-at-rest (KDAR) originating in the core of the Sun would provide a unique signature of dark matter annihilation. Since excellent angle and energy reconstruction are necessary to detect this monoenergetic, directional neutrino flux, DUNE with its vast volume and reconstruction capabilities, is a promising candidate for a KDAR neutrino search. In this work, we evaluate the proposed KDAR neutrino search strategies by realistically modeling both neutrino-nucleus interactions and the response of DUNE. We find that, although reconstruction of the neutrino energy and direction is difficult with current techniques in the relevant energy range, the superb energy resolution, angular resolution, and particle identification offered by DUNE can still permit great signal/background discrimination. Moreover, there are non-standard scenarios in which searches at DUNE for KDAR in the Sun can probe dark matter interactions

    Sol-gel derived mesoporous Pt and Cr-doped WO(3) thin films: the role played by mesoporosity and metal doping in enhancing the gas sensing properties

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    Mesoporous Cr or Pt-doped WO(3) thin films to be employed as ammonia gas sensors were prepared by a fast one-step sol-gel procedure, based on the use of triblock copolymer as templating agent. The obtained films were constituted by aggregates of interconnected WO(3) nanocrystals (20-50 nm) separated by mesopores with dimensions ranging between 2 and 15 nm. The doping metals, Pt and Cr, resulted differently hosted in the WO(3) mesoporous matrix. Chromium is homogeneously dispersed in the oxide matrix, mainly as Cr(III) and Cr(V) centers, as revealed by EPR spectroscopy; instead platinum segregated as Pt (0) nanoparticles (4 nm) mainly included inside the WO(3) nanocrystals. The semiconductor layers containing Pt nanoclusters revealed, upon exposure to NH(3), remarkable electrical responses, much higher than Cr-doped and undoped layers, particularly at low ammonia concentration (6.2 ppm). This behavior was attributed to the presence of Pt nanoparticles segregated inside the semiconductor matrix, which act as catalysts of the N-H bond cleavage, decreasing the activation barrier in the ammonia dissociation. The role of the mesoporous structure in influencing the chemisorption and the gas diffusion in the WO(3) matrix appeared less decisive than the electronic differences between the two examined doping metals. The overall results suggest that a careful combination between mesoporous architecture and metal doping can really promote the electrical response of WO(3) toward ammonia

    Management of iatrogenic subclavian artery rupture: two case reports

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    Bleeding of the branches of a subclavian artery can be a life-threatening condition. Subclavian artery bleeding can lead to tracheal obstruction, hemothorax, respiratory failure, hemorrhagic shock, and death if not diagnosed early and treated promptly. Injury to the subclavian artery occurs in multiple different manners including blunt, penetrating, or iatrogenic trauma. Here we reported two cases of injury of the branches of the right subclavian artery (RSA); one following a central venous catheterization and the other following a thoracic drainage tube placement. Herein we describe two endovascular treatment options used in the management of rupture of a subclavian artery. The proximal tract of the subclavian artery and its main branches is also considered a 'border territory' between interventional vascular radiology and interventional neuroradiology because it gives rise to branches both cervical and to the upper limbs

    Random networks of disconnected nanoparticles in dielectric layers as a source of electric responsivity

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    Many efforts are currently focused on materials with responsive features for neural-inspired devices. Different approaches are followed, based on various mechanisms – from ferroelectric switching to structural phase changes, from magnetic tunnel junctions to metal filament formation. Here we analyze an alternative strategy based on an unconventional electrical response arising from percolative charge transport and charge trapping in discrete random networks of oxide nanostructures in a dielectric matrix. After an analysis of the mechanisms which can potentially be a source of a plastic response in this class of systems, we report evidence of this behavior in a system comprising an alkali-germanosilicate amorphous matrix with incorporated Ga-oxide nanostructures. The active material – consisting in a film 70 nm thick interfaced to p-type Si and Au electrodes – gives a responsive behavior to pulsed bias which is accompanied by bias dependent electric conduction, with resistivity changes of an order of magnitude by applying 2 V, as well as a dielectric response with hysteretic features, as expected by the model. The results represent a first proof of concept of an unexplored strategy for the design of responsive systems
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