1,223 research outputs found

    A framework for key factors affecting compliance with self-help housing standards in Bauchi

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    Self-help housing as a means of housing supply to meet the ever increasing housing demand, due to the drastic failure of the public housing in the developing countries, has been on top of global debates. Recent researches pointed out the rapid increase of self-help houses in Bauchi with more than 50% against public houses since 1970s, however, with an alarming rate of increase between 2000 and 2017. The aim of this research is to determine the mediating effect of compliance intention between the factors of compliance and compliance ability and propose a conceptual model for solving the problem of noncompliance with HDS in Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria. Four research objectives were used. Further, 357 questionnaires were distributed to the housing owners, that is, individual developers in Bauchi metropolis using stratified and systematic sampling. The reliability and EFA were conducted using SPSS version 23. While the unidimensionality and mediation analysis were achieved using Amos Graphics version 23. In the first objective, the results revealed the more reliable and valid factors of compliance, these include finance, public awareness and household size. The factor loadings ranges between 0.5 to 0.9, Cronbach’s alpha ranges from 0.7 to 0.8. While CR and AVE values are 0.7 and 0.5 respectively. In objective two, the results showed that finance and public awareness have a significant direct effect on compliance ability, however, household size has no significant direct effect on compliance ability. In objective three, the results showed that compliance intention fully mediates the effect between finance and compliance ability, compliance intention also fully mediates the effect between public awareness and compliance ability. The most significant contribution of this research is the introduction of compliance intention as a good mediator among the factors of compliance, using a psychological theory of planned behavior. It also proposes a conceptual model that identifies the relationship of the key factors which contribute to compliance with HDS

    Information sources and needs of small scale farmers in Katsina State, Nigeria

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    There is a growing concerted effort in supporting agricultural development worldwide. At present, many governments and donor agencies are intervening by supporting farmers with information in order to scale up farming operations and bridge the low income generation. The purpose of this study is to examine information needs and information sources used by Small Scale Farmers (SSF) in Katsina State. Two research questions and one hypothesis were developed to guide the study. Cross sectional survey design was adopted in which a total of seven hundred (700) registered small scale farmers from three agricultural zones of the state formed the population. A total number of two hundred and eighty (280) respondents were randomly sampled using cluster sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in which the null hypothesis was tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC). The findings of the study revealed that the information needs of the SSF include the prices of farm produce, weather condition, agricultural loan, new seeds, fertilizer, pest control, new technology, information on storage methods as well as other information that could enhance their farming activities. The finding also revealed that the information sources of SSF are friends, relatives, agricultural dealers, extension workers, radio, television, farmers’ cooperative associations and local government agricultural units. Information needs and information sources of small scale farmers in Katsina State are many. At the present, the whole processes are not well coordinated. Government should have a common information hub, relevant agencies and small scale farmers should share information to improve farming activities. Keywords: Information Needs, Information Sources, Small Scale Farmer

    Public relations perspectives on electoral reforms as a panacea for consolidating Nigeria’s democracy

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    Abstract. Electoral reforms have been considered as sustainable means of improving on the quality of elections in Nigeria, this is especially as it avails the country, tremendous opportunities in admitting new policies such as new techniques, technologies and improved systems of protecting the welfare of electorates. It is evident from the literature that, public relations overtime has been a unifying factor in accelerating Nigeria’s democracy and sustaining its need for periodic elections and encouraging the conduct of free, fair and transparent elections by the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC).  Based on the level of malpractices and issues associated with the conduct of elections in Nigeria, it was concluded in this paper that, there are several benefits attached to the process of electoral reforms in Nigeria, hence, it gives government the opportunity to revamp its electoral policies through campaigns, introduction of new technologies, voting and more importantly, the nature of conducting elections bearing in mind that, poorly adopted electoral policies normally lead to the outbreak of crisis from aggrieved parties.  It is recommended amongst others that, government at all levels should consider periodic electoral reforms as a strategy for development and as such; they should ensure that only people with credibility are charged with the mandate of presiding over electoral reform committees (ERC).Keywords. Electoral reforms, Public relations, Democracy and elections.JEL. D72, D73, D78

    The Future of the Defence of Provocation in Nigerian Criminal Law

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    Provocation as a defence is subjected to a considerable degree of criticism especially in the countries where the abolition of capital punishment has taken place and in those of common Law jurisdiction. In these countries there has been an argument on the future of provocation as a line of a partial defence. This is because there are some problems associated with the reasonable relation rule and the question of objectivity in the defence of provocation. In Nigeria, the defence of provocation is a partial defence and the law on provocation needs urgent attention. The doctrine of provocation, however, raises a number of problems for the law students, judges and the practicing lawyers. In the first place, there is the important question as to whether the provocation, in its application to homicide, is defined by the codes themselves or by reference to common law, however, the common law has continued to be a guide in the interpretation of the codes’ provisions. To this extent the law of provocation in Nigeria is supplemented by common law principles. For example, the proportionality rule, though not found in Nigerian codes, is frequently incorporated by the courts in their decisions. Provocation is, therefore, only a mitigating factor so that men will exercise some rational judgment in dealing with each other. The plea of provocation is founded on loss of self-control both actual and reasonable. There is a combination of subjective and objective elements in the plea. Apart from the fact that the accused has received grave and sudden provocation, he must also have been provoked. The objective element in provocation emanates from the reasonable man test and includes the proportionality rule. The second problem in the plea of provocation is the applicability of the objective test in Nigeria and elsewhere. Since the Nigerian legal system is influenced by the Islamic law, reference also will be made to the Maliki School of jurisprudence in the non-recognition of the plea of provocation by its doctrines. Provocation as a defence has given rise to many conceptual difficulties and no easy solution presents itself. It is therefore aimed that this article will examine some aspects of the plea of provocation in an attempt to put it in more rational basis reflecting the basic realities in the Nigerian society of today

    The Causes of Bureaucratic Petty Corruption in the Province of Aceh in Indonesia

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    This article tried to explain the causes of petty corruption in the Province of Aceh. It took the kleptocratic approach and Patrimonialism Politics model in explaining the causes of corruption in the region. It had utilized extensively the secondary sources data from books, journal articles and local media report. It found that after the end of the conflict, Aceh was captured by the local kleptocratic elite and they have been effectively used the patrimonialism politics in maintaining their hegemony and protect their group interest. Leaving the region as the state of being one of the poorest region in Indonesia

    Sustainable Welfare Model for the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the North-Eastern Nigeria: The Role of Waqf Financing

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    The North East region of Nigeria has been experiencing the devastating impact of Boko Haram insurgency which triggered humanitarian crisis and destruction of infrastructure, leading to many becoming internally displaced persons in their country. The Federal Government and the Northeast State Governments, alongside the local and international Non-governmental organizations and development partners have been mostly providing relief services and materials to the IDPs, but despite all these efforts, there is still a funding gap, thus the need to bridge this vacuum; to supplement the efforts of governmental and non-governmental organizations in providing a long term and sustainable welfare model. It is against this backdrop that this study aims at unlocking the potentials of waqf financing model in catering for short-term and long-term welfare of IDPs in the Northeast and how the model could be properly utilized to complement the efforts of governmental and non-governmental organizations in the region. Multistage sampling method was employed in selecting respondents for the study. In the first stage, three States were purposively selected out of the six States of the region based on the devastation level by the insurgency. Thematic Analysis was employed as the method of data analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to summarize and interpret the results of the thematic analyses of the data obtained. The findings of this research have shown the potentials of Waqf financing in bridging the funding gap of IDPs welfare in the north-east. The study also found out that food and clothing are the most critical areas that require immediate attention in the Waqf based IDPs welfare and that, the Investment Waqf Model will be the best means of financing the IDPs Welfare programme in the Northeast due to its modest unique potential advantages over other models. Finally, the study also identified that Conversion of IDPs Support Waqf to Less privilege Support Waqf in case of return of IDPs to their respective communities is the best exit plan for Waqf based IDPs welfare model amongst all other listed exit plans. Key Words: North-East, IDPs, Welfare and Waqf Financin

    Identifying an Analytical Framework to Assess the Determinants of ICT Adoption in Libraries and its Implications for Teaching and Learning during Insecurity

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    The security situation in Nigeria, particularly in the country\u27s North-West and North-Central Zones, has forced the closure of many educational institutions. Teaching and learning have become more erratic as a result of this. This issue has far-reaching repercussions for librarians and information specialists. Libraries have long been regarded and recognized by educational institutions for their contribution to high-quality teaching and learning. Several studies have found that information and communication technology (ICT) can improve teaching and learning by facilitating access to information. As a result, governments and school administrators have been working to promote the use of ICT in libraries to aid teaching and learning. Despite these efforts, ICT adoption is still very low in most primary and secondary schools in Nigeria. This research conducted a conceptual analysis based on a literature search to identify the major criteria that should be considered when promoting the adoption of ICT in libraries to enhance quality teaching and learning in the face of security problem

    INLUENCE OF POLITICS IN EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: PROBLEMS AND WAY FORWARD

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    The influence of politics on education can be traced to the development of civil society itself. Societies evolved from the primitive stages where people agreed and submitted themselves to an authority for control. As a result of that and the legitimacy accords to the authorities, the forces of development in the societies in terms of economic, cultural, social, and political are determined and directed by the authorities. It is on the above backgrounds this paper looks at the negative influence of politics in education in Nigeria which ranges from inequalities in the Nigerian education sector, poor staffing, inadequate funding, and half-backed graduates among others. Furthermore, the positive influence of politics in education in Nigeria is also reiterated such as level of pupil enrolment, quality product, adequate budgetary allocation and funding of education, availability of adequate and quality teachers in schools, and many more.  The paper concludes that educational leadership should be based on merit, policies are made considering the needs of the society, and graduate to be produced on the needs of the economy

    Investigating Brain Functional Networks in a Riemannian Framework

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    The brain is a complex system of several interconnected components which can be categorized at different Spatio-temporal levels, evaluate the physical connections and the corresponding functionalities. To study brain connectivity at the macroscale, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique in all the different modalities has been exemplified to be an important tool. In particular, functional MRI (fMRI) enables to record the brain activity either at rest or in different conditions of cognitive task and assist in mapping the functional connectivity of the brain. The information of brain functional connectivity extracted from fMRI images can be defined using a graph representation, i.e. a mathematical object consisting of nodes, the brain regions, and edges, the link between regions. With this representation, novel insights have emerged about understanding brain connectivity and providing evidence that the brain networks are not randomly linked. Indeed, the brain network represents a small-world structure, with several different properties of segregation and integration that are accountable for specific functions and mental conditions. Moreover, network analysis enables to recognize and analyze patterns of brain functional connectivity characterizing a group of subjects. In recent decades, many developments have been made to understand the functioning of the human brain and many issues, related to the biological and the methodological perspective, are still need to be addressed. For example, sub-modular brain organization is still under debate, since it is necessary to understand how the brain is functionally organized. At the same time a comprehensive organization of functional connectivity is mostly unknown and also the dynamical reorganization of functional connectivity is appearing as a new frontier for analyzing brain dynamics. Moreover, the recognition of functional connectivity patterns in patients affected by mental disorders is still a challenging task, making plausible the development of new tools to solve them. Indeed, in this dissertation, we proposed novel methodological approaches to answer some of these biological and neuroscientific questions. We have investigated methods for analyzing and detecting heritability in twin's task-induced functional connectivity profiles. in this approach we are proposing a geodesic metric-based method for the estimation of similarity between functional connectivity, taking into account the manifold related properties of symmetric and positive definite matrices. Moreover, we also proposed a computational framework for classification and discrimination of brain connectivity graphs between healthy and pathological subjects affected by mental disorder, using geodesic metric-based clustering of brain graphs on manifold space. Within the same framework, we also propose an approach based on the dictionary learning method to encode the high dimensional connectivity data into a vectorial representation which is useful for classification and determining regions of brain graphs responsible for this segregation. We also propose an effective way to analyze the dynamical functional connectivity, building a similarity representation of fMRI dynamic functional connectivity states, exploiting modular properties of graph laplacians, geodesic clustering, and manifold learning

    The Statutory Role of the Nigerian Law Reform Commission in the Administration of Justice in Nigeria

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    Law reforms within the legal system or in the administration of justice system is to improve the laws by making changes or corrections so that the laws will be in harmony with the constant demands of the time being and desired democratic norms. These goals can always be achieved by the way of systematic law reforms based on informed political, economic and social needs which reflects the moral values and aspirations of the people living in a global village. When the old law is reformed and then enacted into new one, it has become a social reality. This new law can be said to emanate from the people. Some said that new law reflects the spirit of the people (i.e. volkgeist). For smooth delivery of justice in the administration of justice system in Nigeria, the Nigerian Law Reform Commission has a great role to play and undertake the progressive development and reform of substantive and procedural law applicable in Nigeria by way of codification, elimination of anomalous or obsolete laws and general simplification of the law in accordance with general directions issued to it by the government from time to time or on its own initiatives to submit proposals for law reforms to the Attorney General and Minister of Justice for the onward submission to the National Assembly (i.e. Parliament) as executive bills for legislation. The Nigerian Law Reform Commission is poorly funded and under utilized to give its professional input in bills making by the Local Government Councils, state houses of Assembly and the National Assembly (i.e. Parliament).The number of the serving commissioners in the Nigerian Law Reform Commission is limited to four. As a commission of jurists this number should be increased by reforming the Nigerian Law Reform Commission Act 1979 to reflect a reasonable number of jurists to cover different branches of law, Sharia and other social sciences
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