180 research outputs found

    Congental myasthenic syndromes - diagnostics and treatment

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    Kongenitalni mijastenički sindromi (KMS) predstavljaju poremećaje granice sigurnosti neuralne transmisije na presinaptičkoj, sinaptičkoj i postinaptičkoj razini. Dijagnoza kongenitalnog mijasteničkog sindroma postavlja se na temelju kliničke slike koja uključuje mišićnu slabost uzrokovanu zamorom što se pojavljuje od ranog djetinjstva, oftalmoparezu, respiratornu insuficijenciju, poremećaj funkcije mišića inerviranih kranijalnim živcima te pad amplitude mišićnog potencijala pri repetitivnoj stimulaciji (dekrementalni odgovor) i odsutnost protutijela na acetilkolinske receptore (AchR) i mišićno specifičnu tirozinsku kinazu (MuSK). Neki kongenitalni mijastenički sindromi manifestiraju se kasnije, a mišićna slabost i dekrementalni odgovor pojavljuju se intermintentno sa selektivnom raspodjelom u određenim mišićnim skupinama. Molekularno genetska analiza je vrlo značajna u dijagnostici kongenitalnog mijasteničkog sindroma. Presinaptički kongenitalni mijastenički sindrom vezan je za recesivne mutacije gena CHAT (kolinacetiltransferaza). Sinaptički oblik uzrokovan je mutacijom podjedinice kolagenskog repa acetilkolinesteraze (AchE). Većina kongenitalnih mijasteničkih sindroma su postsinaptički, uzrokovani mutacijama gena AchR podjedinica. Najčešće su mutacije gena CHRNE za ε-podjedinicu. Općenito, besmislene ili mutacije s pomakom okvira čitanja uzrokuju kongenitalni mijastenički sindrom zbog smanjene ili odsutne ekpresije proteina i nasljeđuju se autosomno recesivno. Mutacije gena rapsina (RAPSN) uzrokuju primarni nedostatak AchR-a na završnoj ploči. U terapiji kongenitalnog mijasteničkog sindroma ponajprije se primjenjuju inhibitori AchE. Prikazujemo djecu s kongenitalnim presinaptičkim i postinaptičkim poremećajima koji su udruženi sa značajnom varijabilnošću kliničke ekspresije u okviru kongenitalnog mijasteničkog sindroma.Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are genetically determined disorders affecting safety margins of neural transmission at presynaptic, postsynaptic and synaptic level. Diagnosis of CMS is made based on clinical symptoms including fatigable muscle weakness since infancy or childhood, decremental EMG response and negative antibodies to acetylcholine receptors (AchR) and muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK). In some CMS the onset is delayed, weakness and EMG abnormalities appear intermittently in restricted distribution. Molecular genetic analysis has an important role in diagnosis of CMS. Presynaptic CMS are associated with recessive CHAT (cholinacyltransferase) gene mutations. The synaptic disorder is caused by mutation of the collagenic tail subunit of the AchE gene. However most CMS are postsynaptic, mostly caused by CHRNE gene mutations of AchR ε-subunit. In general, nonsense or frame shifting mutations cause CMS by decreased or absent protein expression and are inherited in autosomal recessive traits. Rapsyn gene (RAPSN) mutations cause primary endplate AchR deficiency. AchE inhibitors are the drugs of first choice in the treatment of CMS. We present children with presynaptic and with postsynaptic defects manifesting remarkable clinical heterogeneity

    LEA29Y expression in transgenic neonatal porcine islet-like cluster promotes long-lasting xenograft survival in humanized mice without immunosuppressive therapy

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    Genetically engineered pigs are a promising source for islet cell transplantation in type 1 diabetes, but the strong human anti-pig immune response prevents its successful clinical application. Here we studied the efficacy of neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters (NPICCs) overexpressing LEA29Y, a high-affinity variant of the T cell co-stimulation inhibitor CTLA-4Ig, to engraft and restore normoglycemia after transplantation into streptozotocin-diabetic NOD-SCID IL2r gamma(-/-)(NSG) mice stably reconstituted with a human immune system. Transplantation of INSLEA29Y expressing NPICCs resulted in development of normal glucose tolerance (70.4%) and long-term maintenance of normoglycemia without administration of immunosuppressive drugs. All animals transplanted with wild-type NPICCs remained diabetic. Immunohistological examinations revealed a strong peri- and intragraft infiltration of wildtype NPICCs with human CD45(+) immune cells consisting of predominantly CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and some CD68(+) macrophages and FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. Significantly less infiltrating lymphocytes and only few macrophages were observed in animals transplanted with INSLEA29Y transgenic NPICCs. This is the first study providing evidence that beta cell-specific LEA29Y expression is effective for NPICC engraftment in the presence of a humanized immune system and it has a long-lasting protective effect on inhibition of human anti-pig xenoimmunity. Our findings may have important implications for the development of a low-toxic protocol for porcine islet transplantation in patients with type 1 diabetes

    Cold non-ischemic heart preservation with continuous perfusion prevents early graft failure in orthotopic pig-to-baboon xenotransplantation

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    Background Successful preclinical transplantations of porcine hearts into baboon recipients are required before commencing clinical trials. Despite years of research, over half of the orthotopic cardiac xenografts were lost during the first 48 hours after transplantation, primarily caused by perioperative cardiac xenograft dysfunction (PCXD). To decrease the rate of PCXD, we adopted a preservation technique of cold non-ischemic perfusion for our ongoing pig-to-baboon cardiac xenotransplantation project. Methods Fourteen orthotopic cardiac xenotransplantation experiments were carried out with genetically modified juvenile pigs (GGTA1- KO/hCD46/hTBM) as donors and captive-bred baboons as recipients. Organ preservation was compared according to the two techniques applied: cold static ischemic cardioplegia (IC; n = 5) and cold non-ischemic continuous perfusion (CP; n = 9) with an oxygenated albumin-containing hyperoncotic cardioplegic solution containing nutrients, erythrocytes and hormones. Prior to surgery, we measured serum levels of preformed anti-non-Gal-antibodies. During surgery, hemodynamic parameters were monitored with transpulmonary thermodilution. Central venous blood gas analyses were taken at regular intervals to estimate oxygen extraction, as well as lactate production. After surgery, we measured troponine T and serum parameters of the recipient's kidney, liver and coagulation functions. Results In porcine grafts preserved with IC, we found significantly depressed systolic cardiac function after transplantation which did not recover despite increasing inotropic support. Postoperative oxygen extraction and lactate production were significantly increased. Troponin T, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase levels were pathologically high, whereas prothrombin ratios were abnormally low. In three of five IC experiments, PCXD developed within 24 hours. By contrast, all nine hearts preserved with CP retained fully preserved systolic function, none showed any signs of PCXD. Oxygen extraction was within normal ranges; serum lactate as well as parameters of organ functions were only mildly elevated. Preformed anti-non-Gal-antibodies were similar in recipients receiving grafts from either IC or CP preservation. Conclusions While standard ischemic cardioplegia solutions have been used with great success in human allotransplantation over many years, our data indicate that they are insufficient for preservation of porcine hearts transplanted into baboons: Ischemic storage caused severe impairment of cardiac function and decreased tissue oxygen supply, leading to multi-organ failure in more than half of the xenotransplantation experiments. In contrast, cold non-ischemic heart preservation with continuous perfusion reliably prevented early graft failure. Consistent survival in the perioperative phase is a prerequisite for preclinical long-term results after cardiac xenotransplantation

    Studies of new Higgs boson interactions through nonresonant HH production in the b¯bγγ fnal state in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for nonresonant Higgs boson pair production in the b ¯bγγ fnal state is performed using 140 fb−1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. This analysis supersedes and expands upon the previous nonresonant ATLAS results in this fnal state based on the same data sample. The analysis strategy is optimised to probe anomalous values not only of the Higgs (H) boson self-coupling modifer κλ but also of the quartic HHV V (V = W, Z) coupling modifer κ2V . No signifcant excess above the expected background from Standard Model processes is observed. An observed upper limit µHH < 4.0 is set at 95% confdence level on the Higgs boson pair production cross-section normalised to its Standard Model prediction. The 95% confdence intervals for the coupling modifers are −1.4 < κλ < 6.9 and −0.5 < κ2V < 2.7, assuming all other Higgs boson couplings except the one under study are fxed to the Standard Model predictions. The results are interpreted in the Standard Model efective feld theory and Higgs efective feld theory frameworks in terms of constraints on the couplings of anomalous Higgs boson (self-)interactions

    Comparison of inclusive and photon-tagged jet suppression in 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb collisions with ATLAS