6 research outputs found

    Prevalence of Aspergillus spp. and occurrence of aflatoxins in peanut sauce processing by peanut sauce manufacturers

    Get PDF
    The aims of the present work were to determine the prevalence of Aspergillus spp. and occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs) along the peanut sauce processing line from different peanut sauce companies in Malaysia, and to determine to which extent peanut sauce processing steps employed by the peanut sauce industries could efficiently reduce AFs in peanut sauce. Peanut and chili samples were collected at each processing step along the peanut sauce production from three peanut sauce companies which were different in companies’ profile. Peanut samples from Companies B (87.5%) and C (100%) were contaminated with AFs. Of these, 12.5% (Company B) and 75% (Company C) samples exceeded the Malaysian regulatory limit. None of the samples from Company A was contaminated. The steps efficient in reducing AFs in peanut sauce identified in the present work were (i) safety monitoring of raw materials, (ii) sorting of raw materials, and (iii) heat treatment of raw materials

    Reduction of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in peanut sauce processing by oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing

    Get PDF
    Among the many roles played by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry is the production of heritage foods such as peanut sauce. Unfortunately, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chilli, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the practices related to reduction of AF hazard and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Peanut samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing from a small peanut sauce company according to four designs: (1) control; (2) oil-less frying of chilli powder; (3) addition of retort processing; and (4) combination of oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing. Oil-less frying of chilli powder (Design 2) reduced total AFs by 33–41%, retort processing (Design 3) reduced total AFs by 49%, while combination of these two thermal processes (Design 4) significantly reduced total AFs, by 57%. The present work demonstrated that Design 4 yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and is therefore recommended to be employed by SME companies

    Prevalence and control of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in peanut sauce during food processing

    Get PDF
    Peanut sauce is one of Malaysian cooking dishes which is mass-produced by several companies. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chili, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Unfortunately, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled (especially those of small enterprises). Hence, the first objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Aspergillus spp. and AFs along processing steps of peanut sauce manufactured by different companies. Samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing at three peanut sauce companies (A, B, and C). Media used to identify A. flavus and A. parasiticus was A. flavus and A. parasiticus agar (AFPA), meanwhile AFs were analyzed by using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with a multi λ fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). None of the samples from Company A were contaminated with AFs and Aspergillus spp. 12.5% of the samples from Company B were contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and exceeded the limit. Meanwhile, 87.5% of the samples were contaminated with AFs (0.58 – 32.91 ng/g), with 12.5% of them exceeded the permissible limit. For Company C, 37.5% of the samples were contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and exceeded the limit (log 3.44 - 5.05 CFU/g). Meanwhile, all the samples were contaminated with AFs (1.71 – 537.09 ng/g), with 75% of them exceeded the permissible limit. The steps in reducing AFs significantly in the peanut sauce were (i) safety monitoring of raw materials, (ii) sorting of peanut kernels, and (iii) heat treatment of peanut kernels (oil-less frying or frying) and cooking of chili paste or peanut sauce. The second objective of the present study was to control the practices for the reduction of AFs hazards and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Company C was chosen to fulfill this objective because the level of total AFs in the samples was the highest compared to other companies. Four designs of processing steps were set up and samples were collected according to these designs: (1) control; (2) oil-less frying of chili powder; (3) addition of retort processing; (4) combination of oil-less frying of chili powder and retort processing. Designs 2 and 4 reduced Aspergillus spp. significantly in oil-less fried chili powder (from log 3.26 to <3.00 CFU/g), and Design 4 reduced Aspergillus spp. in peanut sauce by 15% (from log 3.62 to 3.08 CFU/g). Meanwhile, Design 2 reduced total AFs by 33% (from 19.98 to 13.48 ng/g), Design 3 reduced total AFs in peanut sauce by 49% (from 363.35 to 184.34 ng/g), while Design 4 significantly reduced total AFs in oil-less fried chili and peanut sauce by 41% (from 30.00 to 17.60 ng/g) and 57% (from 384.74 to 164.62 ng/g), respectively. This study proved that oil-less frying of chili powder, retort processing, and a combination these processes significantly reduce AFs levels. Design 4 (combination of oil-less frying of chili powder and retort processing) yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and therefore recommended to be employed by the Company C

    Penguatkuasaan undang-undang ke atas ajaran salah: satu analisis

    No full text
    Kajian mendapati terdapat beberapa peruntukan berkaitan akhlak dalam Undang-undang Jenayah Syariah yang boleh menjadi benteng utama dan digunakan bagi tujuan menangani masalah keruntuhan akhlak. Walau bagaimanapun, penguatkuasaan terhadap peruntukan tersebut perlu dilakukan secara serius bagi memastikan keberkesanan pelaksanaannya

    Molecular characterisation of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from imported peanuts along the supply chain in Malaysia

    No full text
    Peanuts are widely consumed in many local dishes in southeast Asian countries, especially in Malaysia which is one of the major peanut-importing countries in this region. Therefore, Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts during storage are becoming major concerns due to the tropical weather in this region that favours the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. The present study thus aimed to molecularly identify and characterise the Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from imported peanuts in Malaysia. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and β-tubulin sequences were used to confirm the species and determine the phylogenetic relationship among the isolates, while aflatoxin biosynthesis genes (aflR, aflP (omtA), aflD (nor-1), aflM (ver-1), and pksA) were targeted in a multiplex PCR to determine the toxigenic potential. A total of 76 and one isolates were confirmed as A. flavus and A. tamarii, respectively. The Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree resolved the species into two different clades in which all A. flavus (both aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic) were grouped in the same clade and A. tamarii was grouped in a different clade. The aflatoxin biosynthesis genes were detected in all aflatoxigenic A. flavus while the non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus failed to amplify at least one of the genes. The results indicated that both aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus could survive in imported peanuts and, thus, appropriate storage conditions preferably with low temperature should be considered to avoid the re-emergence of aflatoxigenic A. flavus and the subsequent aflatoxin production in peanuts during storage
    corecore