3,074 research outputs found

    A new model of illocutionary force

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    Includes bibliography.In a series of lectures delivered in the early 1950s and later compiled and released in print as How to do things with Words , J.L. Austin elaborated on the idea that the capacity of language to describe the world was, despite the pre-eminence habitually granted to it by philosophy, really just one among several capacities and that, more generally, language endows its users with the tool to perform certain kinds of acts, called illocutionary acts or, later, speech acts . Speaking, Austin argued, was really a form of action; to say something is always just as much to do something. In the course of the lectures, Austin introduced some relatively well-known theoretical ideas, such as the category of performative utterances. The final lecture describes a taxonomy of utterances according to their illocutionary force. This taxonomy has for most thinkers proven less interesting than some of the moves he makes to get there. Comparatively few thinkers (Searle is the obvious exception, and there are a few others) have shown any interest developing, applying or criticising Austin’s taxonomy. The initial isolation of the class of performative utterances, on the other hand, despite the fact that it turns out to be for Austin essentially no more than a piece of intellectual scaffolding, has provoked an ongoing debate and numerous elaborations in fields as diverse as sociology, literary criticism and gender theory, as well as analytic philosophy. This paper has three chapters. Chapter One comprises a summary of How to do things with Words, followed by a brief discussion of some issues arising from it. The summary is expository, although rather than being comprehensive it focusses on matters relevant to the following chapters. The brief discussion that closes the chapter looks at a question in analytic philosophy (whether someone who makes a promise simultaneously states that they are promising), raises the question of the precise sense in which illocutionary acts are acts at all, and how illocutionary acts are related to the existence of conventions. Chapter Two describes the work or several writers who have been influenced by Austin, and How to do things with Words in particular. John Searle was a student of Austin's and the first writer to produce a substantial critique of Austin and an elaborate the theory of speech acts. Searle's most enduring contribution is probably his taxonomy of speech acts, which became a more or less standard point of reference, in contrast to Austin's, which faded into 4 obscurity. The lack of interest in Austin's taxonomy since Searle published his is not especially surprising, since the latter is presented with a great deal more confidence. It has not been without its critics, however: anthropologist Michelle Rosaldo, for example published an influential critique of it in which she argued that it presented features of contemporary American culture as if they were universals, when in fact other cultures have completely different ways of organising speech acts (Rosaldo 1982). In this chapter I also look at Jacques Derrida's reading of Austin (Derrida 1988), which picks up on the aspects of language that Austin and Searle excluded from their theories and raises some important problems in the relationship of speech acts and personal agency to which Austin and particularly Searle seem to be committed. I then look at what the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (Bourdieu 1992) made of certain Austinian ideas in his explorations of language and power, and end with a brief outline of one way in which speech acts have been analysed by empirical researchers (Blum-Kulka & Olshtain 1984), to illustrate that a very different breakdown of the speech act may be appropriate for different purposes. Apart from Searle, the volume of whose output on the topic makes his inclusion in this chapter uncontroversial, the selection of writers presented in Chapter Two probably seems eclectic, not to mention uneven. Where for example are Kent Bach and Robert Harnish? Though Bach and Harnish are no doubt significant scholars in the field, their interest seemed to me too narrowly philosophical. I have chosen theorists who have raised questions about speech act theory at an arguably more fundamental level, pointed out gaps in its coverage or brought in insights from other disciplines. The reason for this is that Chapter Three presents a new classification of speech acts, partly as a way of re-examining the foundations of speech act theory, and partly with the aim of modifying it to extend its coverage to a greater range of communication phenomena. It is a model of illocutionary forces, instead of illocutionary acts, that aims to meet some (if not all) of the challenges to the classification of speech acts presented by the theorists covered in Chapter Two. This is done, principally, through an integration of Searle's taxonomy, modified in several important ways, with Roman Jakobson's model of the functions of language (Jakobson 1960, 1980)

    Aberrant Disgust Responses and Immune Reactivity in Cocaine-Dependent Men

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    Background: Infectious diseases are the most common and cost-intensive health complications associated with drug addiction. There is wide belief that drug-dependent individuals expose themselves more regularly to disease-related pathogens through risky behaviors such as sharing pipes and needles, thereby increasing their risk for contracting an infectious disease. However, evidence is emerging indicating that not only lifestyle but also the immunomodulatory effects of addictive drugs, such as cocaine, may account for their high infection risk. As feelings of disgust are thought to be an important psychological mechanism in avoiding the exposure to pathogens, we sought to investigate behavioral, physiological, and immune responses to disgust-evoking cues in both cocaine-dependent and healthy men. Methods: All participants (N = 61) were exposed to neutral and disgust-evoking photographs depicting food and nonfood images while response accuracy, latency, and skin conductivity were recorded. Saliva samples were collected before and after exposure to neutral and disgusting images, respectively. Attitudes toward disgust and hygiene behaviors were assessed using questionnaire measures. Results: Response times to disgust-evoking photographs were prolonged in all participants, and specifically in cocaine-dependent individuals. While viewing the disgusting images, cocaine-dependent individuals exhibited aberrant skin conductivity and increased the secretion of the salivary cytokine interleukin-6 relative to control participants. Conclusion: Our data provide evidence of a hypersensitivity to disgusting stimuli in cocaine-dependent individuals, possibly reflecting conditioned responses to noningestive sources of infection. Coupled with a lack of interoception of bodily signals, aberrant disgust responses might lead to increased infection susceptibility in affected individuals

    Completing the hybridization triangle: the inheritance of genetic incompatibilities during homoploid hybrid speciation in ragworts (Senecio)

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    A new homoploid hybrid lineage needs to establish a degree of reproductive isolation from its parent species if it is to persist as an independent entity, but the role hybridization plays in this process is known in only a handful of cases. The homoploid hybrid ragwort species, Senecio squalidus, (Oxford ragwort) originated following the introduction of hybrid plants to the UK approximately 320 years ago. The source of the hybrid plants was from a naturally occurring hybrid zone between S. aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius on Mount Etna, Sicily. Previous studies of the parent species found evidence for multiple incompatibility loci causing transmission ratio distortion of genetic markers in their hybrid progeny. This study closes the hybridization triangle by reporting a genetic mapping analysis of the remaining two paired cross combinations between S. squalidus and its parents. Genetic maps produced from F2 mapping families were generally collinear but with half of the linkage groups showing evidence of genomic reorganization between genetic maps. The new maps produced from crosses between S. squalidus and each parent showed multiple incompatibility loci distributed across the genome, some of which co-locate with previously reported incompatibility loci between the parents. These findings suggest that this young homoploid hybrid species has inherited a unique combination of genomic rearrangements and incompatibilities from its parents that contribute to its reproductive isolation

    Building performance digest [April 2020]

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    Welcome to the Building Performance Digest. In this regular newsletter we highlight some of the issues that arise once buildings have been designed, constructed, commissioned and occupied. Many are typical of the kinds of problems addressed by the MSc Advanced Building Performance Evaluation

    The Road to Quantum Computational Supremacy

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    We present an idiosyncratic view of the race for quantum computational supremacy. Google's approach and IBM challenge are examined. An unexpected side-effect of the race is the significant progress in designing fast classical algorithms. Quantum supremacy, if achieved, won't make classical computing obsolete.Comment: 15 pages, 1 figur

    Higher-order calculations of electron-deuteron scattering in nuclear effective theory

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    Motivated by recent advances in the application of effective field theory techniques to light nuclei we revisit the problem of electron-deuteron scattering in these approaches. By sidestepping problems with the description of electron-nucleon scattering data in effective field theories, we show that the effective theory expansion for deuteron physics converges well over a wide range of momentum transfers. The resultant description of the physics of the two-nucleon system is good up to virtual photon momenta of order 700 MeV.Comment: 18 pages, 7 figure

    Elastic electron-deuteron scattering in chiral effective field theory

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    We calculate elastic electron-deuteron scattering in a chiral effective field theory approach for few-nucleon systems based on a modified Weinberg power counting. We construct the current operators and the deuteron wave function at next-to-leading (NLO) and next-to-next-to-leading (NNLO) order simultaneously within a projection formalism. The leading order comprises the impulse approximation of photons coupling to point-like nucleons with an anomalous magnetic moment. At NLO, we include renormalizations of the single nucleon operators. To this order, no unknown parameters enter. At NNLO, one four-nucleon-photon operator appears. Its strength can be determined from the deuteron magnetic moment. We obtain not only a satisfactory description of the deuteron structure functions and form factors measured in electron-deuteron scattering but also find a good convergence for these observables.Comment: 13 pp, elsart.cls, 4 figs, extended version, includes NNLO corrections and more detailed discussion
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