2,711 research outputs found

    Process evaluation of complex interventions tested in randomised controlled trials in musculoskeletal disorders: A systematic review protocol

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    Introduction The effectiveness of complex interventions for the management of musculoskeletal disorders has been estimated in many randomised clinical trials (RCTs). These trials inform which interventions are the most effective, however they do not always inform how an intervention achieved its clinical outcomes, nor how and what elements of an intervention were delivered to patients. Such information is useful for translating findings into clinical practice. A few process evaluation studies have been conducted alongside RCTs and a variety of methods have been used. To gain a better understanding of current practices of process evaluation in RCTs in musculoskeletal disorders, this systematic review is designed to answer the following research question: How are process evaluation of complex interventions tested in RCTs in musculoskeletal disorders being conducted? Methods and analysis We will systematically search seven electronic databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane database) from the date of inception to August 2018 for studies on process evaluation of RCTs on non-surgical and non-pharmacological management of musculoskeletal disorders. We will include qualitative and quantitative studies conducted alongside RCTs, reported with the RCTs or separate studies that assessed interventions for musculoskeletal disorders. Two reviewers will screen abstracts and apply prespecified inclusion criteria to identify relevant studies, extract the data and assess the risk of bias within included studies. We will follow recommendations from the Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group Guidance Series' when assessing methodological strengths and limitations of included studies. We will use a narrative synthesis to describe findings. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required as this review will not collect original data. Findings from this systematic review will be presented at a scientific conference and published in a peer reviewed journal. PROSPERO registration number CRD4201810960

    Mediators of the effects of exercise and manual therapy for people with knee and hip osteoarthritis: A secondary, exploratory analysis of the MOA trial

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from Elsevier via the DOI in this recordOBJECTIVE: To explore whether pain beliefs and functional strength mediate the treatment effect of manual therapy (MT) and exercise therapy (ET) on the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) composite scores and its subscales in individuals with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis in the MOA trial. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial that compared the incremental effects of supervised MT and ET in addition to usual care in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. 206 participants enrolled in the MOA trial were analysed. The primary outcome measure was the WOMAC composite score after 1 year. RESULTS: Pain belief mediated the effect of MT (b: -10.7, 95 ​% CI: -22.3, -0.9), ET (b: -14.5 95%CI: -26.0, -4.4). Functional strength did not mediate the effect of MT, ET, or MT ​+ ​ET. Mediation sensitivity analyses suggest findings are likely to change if small confounding between those mediators and WOMAC composite score is present. CONCLUSIONS: We identified possible mediators of MT and ET. Future confirmatory studies could be designed to assess the mechanisms through which manual therapy and exercise cause improvements in pain and function scores in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis.Health Research Council of New ZealandNational Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR

    Search for dark matter produced in association with a Standard Model Higgs boson decaying into b-quarks using the full Run 2 dataset from the ATLAS detector

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    Abstract: The production of dark matter in association with Higgs bosons is predicted in several extensions of the Standard Model. An exploration of such scenarios is presented, considering final states with missing transverse momentum and b-tagged jets consistent with a Higgs boson. The analysis uses proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC during Run 2, amounting to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb−1 . The analysis, when compared with previous searches, benefits from a larger dataset, but also has further improvements providing sensitivity to a wider spectrum of signal scenarios. These improvements include both an optimised event selection and advances in the object identification, such as the use of the likelihood-based significance of the missing transverse momentum and variable-radius track-jets. No significant deviation from Standard Model expectations is observed. Limits are set, at 95% confidence level, in two benchmark models with two Higgs doublets extended by either a heavy vector boson Z 0 or a pseudoscalar singlet a and which both provide a dark matter candidate χ. In the case of the two-Higgs-doublet model with an additional vector boson Z 0 , the observed limits extend up to a Z 0 mass of 3 TeV for a mass of 100 GeV for the dark matter candidate. The two-Higgs-doublet model with a dark matter particle mass of 10 GeV and an additional pseudoscalar a is excluded for masses of the a up to 520 GeV and 240 GeV for tan β = 1 and tan β = 10 respectively. Limits on the visible cross-sections are set and range from to 0.05 fb to 3.26 fb, depending on the missing transverse momentum and b-quark jet multiplicity requirements

    Measurement of hadronic event shapes in high-pT multijet final states at √s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detecto

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    Artículo escrito por un elevado número de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboración, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UA

    Measurements of top-quark pair single- and double-differential cross-sections in the all-hadronic channel in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV using the ATLAS detector

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    Artículo escrito por un elevado número de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboración, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UA

    On BCFW shifts of integrands and integrals

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    In this article a first step is made towards the extension of Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) tree level on-shell recursion relations to integrands and integrals of scattering amplitudes to arbitrary loop order. Surprisingly, it is shown that the large BCFW shift limit of the integrands has the same structure as the corresponding tree level amplitude in any minimally coupled Yang-Mills theory in four or more dimensions. This implies that these integrands can be reconstructed from a subset of their `single cuts'. The main tool is powercounting Feynman graphs in a special lightcone gauge choice employed earlier at tree level by Arkani-Hamed and Kaplan. The relation between shifts of integrands and shifts of its integrals is investigated explicitly at one loop. Two particular sources of discrepancy between the integral and integrand are identified related to UV and IR divergences. This is cross-checked with known results for helicity equal amplitudes at one loop. The nature of the on-shell residue at each of the single-cut singularities of the integrand is commented upon. Several natural conjectures and opportunities for further research present themselves.Comment: 43 pages, 6 figures, v2: minor improvement in exposition, typos fixed, bibliography update

    Non-thermal emission processes in massive binaries

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    In this paper, I present a general discussion of several astrophysical processes likely to play a role in the production of non-thermal emission in massive stars, with emphasis on massive binaries. Even though the discussion will start in the radio domain where the non-thermal emission was first detected, the census of physical processes involved in the non-thermal emission from massive stars shows that many spectral domains are concerned, from the radio to the very high energies. First, the theoretical aspects of the non-thermal emission from early-type stars will be addressed. The main topics that will be discussed are respectively the physics of individual stellar winds and their interaction in binary systems, the acceleration of relativistic electrons, the magnetic field of massive stars, and finally the non-thermal emission processes relevant to the case of massive stars. Second, this general qualitative discussion will be followed by a more quantitative one, devoted to the most probable scenario where non-thermal radio emitters are massive binaries. I will show how several stellar, wind and orbital parameters can be combined in order to make some semi-quantitative predictions on the high-energy counterpart to the non-thermal emission detected in the radio domain. These theoretical considerations will be followed by a census of results obtained so far, and related to this topic... (see paper for full abstract)Comment: 47 pages, 5 postscript figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics Review. Astronomy and Astrophysics Review, in pres

    Current status of NLTE analysis of stellar atmospheres

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    Various available codes for NLTE modeling and analysis of hot star spectra are reviewed. Generalizations of standard equations of kinetic equilibrium and their consequences are discussed.Comment: in Determination of Atmospheric Parameters of B-, A-, F- and G-Type Stars, E. Niemczura et al. eds., Springer, in pres
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