114 research outputs found

    Noise and Disturbance of Qubit Measurements: An Information-Theoretic Characterisation

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    Information-theoretic definitions for the noise associated with a quantum measurement and the corresponding disturbance to the state of the system have recently been introduced [F. Buscemi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 050401 (2014)]. These definitions are invariant under relabelling of measurement outcomes, and lend themselves readily to the formulation of state-independent uncertainty relations both for the joint estimate of observables (noise-noise relations) and the noise-disturbance tradeoff. Here we derive such relations for incompatible qubit observables, which we prove to be tight in the case of joint estimates, and present progress towards fully characterising the noise-disturbance tradeoff. In doing so, we show that the set of obtainable noise-noise values for such observables is convex, whereas the conjectured form for the set of obtainable noise-disturbance values is not. Furthermore, projective measurements are not optimal with respect to the joint-measurement noise or noise-disturbance tradeoffs. Interestingly, it seems that four-outcome measurements are needed in the former case, whereas three-outcome measurements are optimal in the latter.Comment: Minor changes, corresponds to final published version. 14 pages, 5 figure

    Von Neumann Normalisation of a Quantum Random Number Generator

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    In this paper we study von Neumann un-biasing normalisation for ideal and real quantum random number generators, operating on finite strings or infinite bit sequences. In the ideal cases one can obtain the desired un-biasing. This relies critically on the independence of the source, a notion we rigorously define for our model. In real cases, affected by imperfections in measurement and hardware, one cannot achieve a true un-biasing, but, if the bias "drifts sufficiently slowly", the result can be arbitrarily close to un-biasing. For infinite sequences, normalisation can both increase or decrease the (algorithmic) randomness of the generated sequences. A successful application of von Neumann normalisation---in fact, any un-biasing transformation---does exactly what it promises, un-biasing, one (among infinitely many) symptoms of randomness; it will not produce "true" randomness.Comment: 27 pages, 2 figures. Updated to published versio

    On the definition and characterisation of multipartite causal (non)separability

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    The concept of causal nonseparability has been recently introduced, in opposition to that of causal separability, to qualify physical processes that locally abide by the laws of quantum theory, but cannot be embedded in a well-defined global causal structure. While the definition is unambiguous in the bipartite case, its generalisation to the multipartite case is not so straightforward. Two seemingly different generalisations have been proposed, one for a restricted tripartite scenario and one for the general multipartite case. Here we compare the two, showing that they are in fact inequivalent. We propose our own definition of causal (non)separability for the general case, which---although a priori subtly different---turns out to be equivalent to the concept of "extensible causal (non)separability" introduced before, and which we argue is a more natural definition for general multipartite scenarios. We then derive necessary, as well as sufficient conditions to characterise causally (non)separable processes in practice. These allow one to devise practical tests, by generalising the tool of witnesses of causal nonseparability

    A Non-Probabilistic Model of Relativised Predictability in Physics

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    Little effort has been devoted to studying generalised notions or models of (un)predictability, yet is an important concept throughout physics and plays a central role in quantum information theory, where key results rely on the supposed inherent unpredictability of measurement outcomes. In this paper we continue the programme started in [1] developing a general, non-probabilistic model of (un)predictability in physics. We present a more refined model that is capable of studying different degrees of "relativised" unpredictability. This model is based on the ability for an agent, acting via uniform, effective means, to predict correctly and reproducibly the outcome of an experiment using finite information extracted from the environment. We use this model to study further the degree of unpredictability certified by different quantum phenomena, showing that quantum complementarity guarantees a form of relativised unpredictability that is weaker than that guaranteed by Kochen-Specker-type value indefiniteness. We exemplify further the difference between certification by complementarity and value indefiniteness by showing that, unlike value indefiniteness, complementarity is compatible with the production of computable sequences of bits.Comment: 10 page

    Multipartite Causal Correlations: Polytopes and Inequalities

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    We consider the most general correlations that can be obtained by a group of parties whose causal relations are well-defined, although possibly probabilistic and dependent on past parties' operations. We show that, for any fixed number of parties and inputs and outputs for each party, the set of such correlations forms a convex polytope, whose vertices correspond to deterministic strategies, and whose (nontrivial) facets define so-called causal inequalities. We completely characterize the simplest tripartite polytope in terms of its facet inequalities, propose generalizations of some inequalities to scenarios with more parties, and show that our tripartite inequalities can be violated within the process matrix formalism, where quantum mechanics is locally valid but no global causal structure is assumed.Comment: 14 pages and 1 supplementary CDF fil
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