14 research outputs found

    Impact of capital structure on profitability in the manufacturing and non-manufacturing industries of Pakistan

    Get PDF
    This study motives to analyze and understand the association between capital structure and profitability and the fastidious to measure their significance in manufacturing and non manufacturing industries of Pakistan. The paper adopts a quantitative data of different manufacturing and non manufacturing organizations in Pakistan. The financial statements were analyzed of manufacturing and non manufacturing organizations of Pakistan for the period of 2008-2013. The study reveals the fact, profitability and debt in manufacturing and non manufacturing industry is an insignificant relationship and a strong positive link between profitability and debt. The population of the study is a Manufacturing and Non-Manufacturing industry of Pakistan and units of analysis is D.G Cement factory and AGTL from Manufacturing industry and, HBL & Bank Al-Falah from Non-Manufacturing industry. In this paper descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data. It is proved that manufacturing industry has found a strong negative regression between debts and profit and the non-manufacturing has found a strong positive regression between debt and profit

    Impact of Capital Structure on the Profitability in the Manufacturing and Non-Manufacturing Industries of Pakistan

    Get PDF
    The aim of this paper is to observe the connection between the capital structure and profitability and in fastidious, to measures their significance in manufacturing and non manufacturing industries of Pakistan. The paper adopts a quantitative data of different manufacturing and non manufacturing organizations in Pakistan. The financial statements were analyzed of manufacturing and non manufacturing organizations of Pakistan for the period of 2008-2013. The study reveals that there is a strong negative relationship between the profitability and debt in manufacturing industry and in the Non -manufacturing industry, there is a strong positive relationship between profitability and debt. The population of this study is Manufacturing and Non-Manufacturing industry of Pakistan and units of analysis are D.G Cement factory and AGTL from Manufacturing industry and, HBL & Bank Al-Falah from Non-Manufacturing industry. In this paper descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data. It is proved that manufacturing industry has found a strong negative regression between debts and profit and the non- manufacturing has found a strong positive regression between debt and profit. Keywords: Total debt; capital structure; profitability, performance; Return on Equity; Return on investment; Earning Per share and Price to Earnings Ratio, leverage

    Transnational Marriage in Malaysia: Case Study and a Critical Review Based on Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and Narrative Analysis of Topical Stories

    Get PDF
    This chapter examines child citizenship in transnational marriages involving Malaysian women and foreign spouses. The discussion is based on the critical reviews of the Malaysian laws in regard to transnational marriages and its adherence to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). In Malaysia, most marriages are endogamous (within the same ethnic group), but mixed marriages between diverse backgrounds are on the rise. The federal constitution shows differing citizenship provisions for children of transnational marriages based on the gender of the Malaysian spouse, indicating potential gender inequality in the legislation. Therefore, this chapter discusses the importance of addressing transnational marriage issues in line with the ratified CEDAW, which Malaysia adopted in August 1995. The review focuses on Malaysian mothers with non-Malaysian citizen children and identifies five themes from the data: divorce-related emotional distress, lack of awareness of child citizenship status, unresponsiveness from authorities, prioritizing child welfare, and uncertainty about the future. Gender inequality in legislative provisions impacting mothers and children with different nationalities is highlighted. The review urges the government to take decisive action to comply with the convention and ensure justice for affected mothers and their children

    Une approche Unifiée au Traitement de “Mappings” d’Ontologies et de leurs Défauts

    No full text
    An ontology mapping is a set of correspondences. Each correspondence relates artifacts, such as concepts and properties, of one ontology to artifacts of another ontology. In the last few years, a lot of attention has been paid to establish mappings between source ontologies. Ontology mapping is widely and effectively used for interoperability and integration tasks (data transformation, query answering, or web-service composition, to name a few), and in the creation of new ontologies. On the one side, checking the (logical) correctness of ontology mappings has become a fundamental prerequisite of their use. On the other side, given two ontologies, there are several ontology mappings between them that can be obtained by using different ontology matching methods or just stated manually. Using ontology mappings between two ontologies in combination within a single application or for synthesizing one mapping taking the advantage of two original mappings, may cause errors in the application or in the synthesized mapping because those original mappings may be contradictory (conflicting). In both situations, correctness is usually formalized and verified in the context of fully formalized ontologies (e.g. in logics), even if some “weak” notions of correctness have been proposed when ontologies are informally represented or represented in formalisms preventing a formalization of correctness (such as UML). Verifying correctness is usually performed within one single formalism, requiring on the one side that ontologies need to be represented in this unique formalism and, on the other side, a formal representation of mapping is provided, equipped with notions related to correctness (such as consistency). In practice, there exist several heterogeneous formalisms for expressing ontologies, ranging from informal (text, UML and others) to formal (logical and algebraic). This implies that, willing to apply existing approaches, heterogeneous ontologies should be translated (or just transformed if, the original ontology is informally represented or when full translation, keeping equivalence, is not possible) in one common formalism, mappings need each time to be reformulated, and then correctness can be established. This is possible but possibly leading to correct mappings under one translation and incorrect mapping under another translation. Indeed, correctness (e.g. consistency) depends on the underlying employed formalism in which ontologies and mappings are expressed. Different interpretations of correctness are available within the formal or even informal approaches questioning about what correctness is indeed. In the dissertation, correctness has been reformulated in the context of heterogeneous ontologies by using the theory of Galois connections. Specifically ontologies are represented as lattices and mappings as functions between those lattices. Lattices are natural structures for directly representing ontologies, without changing the original formalisms in which ontologies are expressed. As a consequence, the (unified) notion of correctness has been reformulated by using Galois connection condition, leading to the new notion of compatible and incompatible mappings. It is formally shown that the new notion covers the reviewed correctness notions, provided in distinct state of the art formalisms, and, at the same time, can naturally cover heterogeneous ontologies. The usage of the proposed unified approach is demonstrated by applying it to upper ontology mappings. Notion of compatible and incompatible ontology mappings is also applied on domain ontologies to highlight that incompatible ontology mappings give incorrect results when used for ontology merging.Un mapping d’ontologies est un ensemble de correspondances. Chaque correspondance relie des artefacts, typiquement concepts et propriétés, d’une ontologie avec ceux d’une autre ontologie. Le mapping entre ontologies a suscité beaucoup d’intérêt durant ces dernières années. En effet, le mapping d’ontologies est largement utilisé pour mettre en oeuvre de l’interopérabilité et intégration (transformation de données, réponse à la requête, composition de web service) dans les applications, et également dans la création de nouvelles ontologies. D’une part, vérifier l’exactitude (logique) d’un mapping est devenu un prérequis fondamentale à son utilisation. D’autre part, pour deux ontologies données, plusieurs mappings peuvent être établis, obtenus par différentes méthodes d’alignement, ou définis manuellement. L’utilisation de plusieurs mappings entre deux ontologies dans une seule application ou pour synthétiser un seul mapping tirant profit de ces plusieurs mappings, peut générer des erreurs dans l’application ou dans le mapping synthétisé car ces plusieurs mappings peuvent être contradictoires. Dans les deux situations décrites ci-dessus, l’exactitude, la non-contradiction et autres propriétés sont généralement exprimées de façon formelle et vérifiées dans le contexte des ontologies formelles (par exemple, lorsque les ontologies sont représentées en logique) La vérification de ces propriétés est généralement effectuée à l’aide d’un seul formalisme, exigeant d’une part que les ontologies soient représentées par ce seul formalisme et, d’autre part, qu’une représentation formelle des mappings soit fournie, complétée par des notions formalisant les propriétés recherchées. Cependant, il existe une multitude de formalismes hétérogènes pour exprimer les ontologies, allant des plus informels (par exemple, du texte contrôlé, des modèles en UML) aux formels (par exemple, des logiques de description ou des catégories). Ceci implique que pour appliquer les approches existantes, les ontologies hétérogènes doivent être traduites (ou juste transformées, si l’ontologie source est exprimée de façon informelle ou si la traduction complète pour maintenir l’équivalence n’est pas possible) dans un seul formalisme commun et les mappings sont reformulés à chaque fois : seulement à l’issu de ce processus, les propriétés recherchées peuvent être établies. Même si cela est possible, ce processus peut produire à la fois des mappings corrects et incorrects vis-à-vis de ces propriétés, en fonction de la traduction (transformation) opérée. En effet, les propriétés recherchées dépendent du formalisme employé pour exprimer les ontologies et les mappings. Dans cette dissertation, des différentes propriétés ont été a été reformulées d’une manière unifiée dans le contexte d’ontologies hétérogènes utilisant la théorie de Galois. Dans ce contexte, les ontologies sont représentées comme treillis, et les mappings sont reformulés comme fonctions entre ces treillis. Les treillis sont des structures naturelles pour la représentation directe d’ontologies sans obligation de traduire ou transformer les formalismes dans lesquels les ontologies sont exprimées à l’origine. Cette reformulation unifiée a permis d’introduire une nouvelle notion de mappings compatibles et incompatibles. Il est ensuite formellement démontré que cette nouvelle notion couvre plusieurs parmi les propriétés recherchées de mappings, mentionnées dans l’état de l’art. L’utilisation directe de mappings compatibles et incompatibles est démontrée par l’application à des mappings d’ontologies de haut niveau. La notion de mappings compatibles et incompatibles est aussi appliquée sur des ontologies de domaine, mettant en évidence comment les mappings incompatibles génèrent des résultats incorrects pour la fusion d’ontologies

    Polarization control and measurement with meta-optics

    No full text
    Thesis: S.M., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2019Cataloged from PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (pages 84-92).Metasurfaces are artificially engineered arrays of subwavelength phase-shifting elements which, if designed with explicit polarization dependence, provide a fascinating platform for new polarization optics. In this thesis, we present metasurface diffraction gratings designed to produce arbitrarily specified polarization states on a set of defined diffraction orders, given that the polarization of the incident beam is known. The metasurface diffraction gratings are designed using gradient-descent optimization, followed by a metasurface specific optimization scheme. We also design and implement a metasurface grating that, when used in the reverse configuration, may be used as a parallel snapshot polarimeter, requiring minimum of standard bulk polarization optics. We demonstrate its use in measuring partially polarized light, and show its performance compares favourably with a commercial polarimeter: for the degree of polarization (DOP) measurements we observed a standard deviation of [sigma]= 1.6% and a mean difference of [mu] = 0.6%, and for the state of polarization (SOP) parameters azimuth [chi] and ellipticity [epsilon], we observe standard deviations of [sigma]= 1.320 and [sigma]= 0.43' respectively. This work is of potential interest in any application requiring compact, lightweight and low cost polarization dependent optics, polarization sensing, or polarization imaging.by Muhammad Aun Abbas Zaidi.S.M.S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Scienc

    Architecture of WiFi Based Broadcast Network for Rural Community

    No full text
    Digital divide is a reality in developing nations. Most of the technological advancements are available only in urban areas and rural community is still deprived of communication technology even in 21 st century. To ensure the availability of Internet, TV (Television) and other high data-rate services to the rural community; use of high power ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) band broadcast should be of interest. The aim of this research work is to design a WiFi based broadcast network that provides broadband access to remote areas and to study the propagation characteristics of this network in a typical rural community in the plains of Pakistan. This paper uses extensive measurements in indoor and outdoor environments of village ?Lower Kot Ratta? to develop a WiFi broadband broadcast propagation model for rural areas of Pakistan. The proposed model is simple, flexible and more suitable for rural areas as compared to existing model

    Computerized database management system for breast cancer patients

    Get PDF
    Data analysis based on breast cancer risk factors such as age, race, breastfeeding, hormone replacement therapy, family history, and obesity was conducted on breast cancer patients using a new enhanced computerized database management system. My Structural Query Language (MySQL) is selected as the application for database management system to store the patient data collected from hospitals in Malaysia. An automatic calculation tool is embedded in this system to assist the data analysis. The results are plotted automatically and a user-friendly graphical user interface is developed that can control the MySQL database. Case studies show breast cancer incidence rate is highest among Malay women, followed by Chinese and Indian. The peak age for breast cancer incidence is from 50 to 59 years old. Results suggest that the chance of developing breast cancer is increased in older women, and reduced with breastfeeding practice. The weight status might affect the breast cancer risk differently. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings
    corecore