217 research outputs found

    Extended Reaction Rate Integral as Solutions of Some General Differential Equations

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    Here an extended form of the reaction rate probability integral, in the case of nonresonant thermonuclear reactions with the depleted tail and the right tail cut off, is considered. The reaction rate integral then can be looked upon as the inverse of the convolution of the Mellin transforms of Tsallis type statistics of nonextensive statistical mechanics and stretched exponential as well as that of superstatistics and stretched exponentials. The differential equations satisfied by the extended probability integrals are derived. The idea used is a novel one of evaluating the extended integrals in terms of some special functions and then by invoking the differential equations satisfied by these special functions. Some special cases of limiting situations are also discussed.Comment: 9 pages, LaTe

    An Integro-Differential Equation of the Fractional Form: Cauchy Problem and Solution

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    Producción CientíficaWe solve the Cauchy problem defined by the fractional partial differential equation [∂tt − κD]u = 0, with D the pseudo-differential Riesz operator of first order, and certain initial conditions. The solution of the Cauchy problem resulting from the substitution of the Gaussian pulse u(x, 0) by the Dirac delta distribution ϕ(x) = μδ(x) is obtained as corollary.MINECO grant MTM2014-57129-C2-1-P

    An Alternative Method for Solving a Certain Class of Fractional Kinetic Equations

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    An alternative method for solving the fractional kinetic equations solved earlier by Haubold and Mathai (2000) and Saxena et al. (2002, 2004a, 2004b) is recently given by Saxena and Kalla (2007). This method can also be applied in solving more general fractional kinetic equations than the ones solved by the aforesaid authors. In view of the usefulness and importance of the kinetic equation in certain physical problems governing reaction-diffusion in complex systems and anomalous diffusion, the authors present an alternative simple method for deriving the solution of the generalized forms of the fractional kinetic equations solved by the aforesaid authors and Nonnenmacher and Metzler (1995). The method depends on the use of the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus operators. It has been shown by the application of Riemann-Liouville fractional integral operator and its interesting properties, that the solution of the given fractional kinetic equation can be obtained in a straight-forward manner. This method does not make use of the Laplace transform.Comment: 7 pages, LaTe

    Implementation of routine outcome measurement in child and adolescent mental health services in the United Kingdom: a critical perspective

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    The aim of this commentary is to provide an overview of clinical outcome measures that are currently recommended for use in UK Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), focusing on measures that are applicable across a wide range of conditions with established validity and reliability, or innovative in their design. We also provide an overview of the barriers and drivers to the use of Routine Outcome Measurement (ROM) in clinical practice

    A note on the pricing of multivariate contingent claims under a transformed-gamma distribution

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    We develop a framework for pricing multivariate European-style contingent claims in a discrete-time economy based on a multivariate transformed-gamma distribution. In our model, each transformed-gamma distributed underlying asset depends on two terms: a idiosyncratic term and a systematic term, where the latter is the same for all underlying assets and has a direct impact on their correlation structure. Given our distributional assumptions and the existence of a representative agent with a standard utility function, we apply equilibrium arguments and provide sufficient conditions for obtaining preference-free contingent claim pricing equations. We illustrate the applicability of our framework by providing examples of preference-free contingent claim pricing models. Multivariate pricing models are of particular interest when payoffs depend on two or more underlying assets, such as crack and crush spread options, options to exchange one asset for another, and options with a stochastic strike price in general

    Distributions of epistasis in microbes fit predictions from a fitness landscape model.

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    How do the fitness effects of several mutations combine? Despite its simplicity, this question is central to the understanding of multilocus evolution. Epistasis (the interaction between alleles at different loci), especially epistasis for fitness traits such as reproduction and survival, influences evolutionary predictions "almost whenever multilocus genetics matters". Yet very few models have sought to predict epistasis, and none has been empirically tested. Here we show that the distribution of epistasis can be predicted from the distribution of single mutation effects, based on a simple fitness landscape model. We show that this prediction closely matches the empirical measures of epistasis that have been obtained for Escherichia coli and the RNA virus vesicular stomatitis virus. Our results suggest that a simple fitness landscape model may be sufficient to quantitatively capture the complex nature of gene interactions. This model may offer a simple and widely applicable alternative to complex metabolic network models, in particular for making evolutionary predictions

    Core components for effective infection prevention and control programmes: new WHO evidence-based recommendations

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    Abstract Health care-associated infections (HAI) are a major public health problem with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. They represent also an important economic burden to health systems worldwide. However, a large proportion of HAI are preventable through effective infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. Improvements in IPC at the national and facility level are critical for the successful containment of antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of HAI, including outbreaks of highly transmissible diseases through high quality care within the context of universal health coverage. Given the limited availability of IPC evidence-based guidance and standards, the World Health Organization (WHO) decided to prioritize the development of global recommendations on the core components of effective IPC programmes both at the national and acute health care facility level, based on systematic literature reviews and expert consensus. The aim of the guideline development process was to identify the evidence and evaluate its quality, consider patient values and preferences, resource implications, and the feasibility and acceptability of the recommendations. As a result, 11 recommendations and three good practice statements are presented here, including a summary of the supporting evidence, and form the substance of a new WHO IPC guideline
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