10,917 research outputs found

    Role of Group and Phase Velocity in High-Energy Neutrino Observatories

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    Kuzmichev recently showed that use of phase velocity rather than group velocity for Cherenkov light signals and pulses from calibration lasers in high-energy neutrino telescopes leads to errors in track reconstruction and distance measurement. We amplify on his remarks and show that errors for four cases of interest to AMANDA, IceCube, and RICE (radio Cherenkov detector) are negligibly small.Comment: To be published in Astroparticle Physics, 6 pages, uses elsart.st

    The Art Of Friendship: Solidifying Resettled Communities In Philadelphia

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    Written by two unlikely friends, this article discusses a project, Friends, Peace, and Sanctuary (FPS), that brought together professional book artists and recently resettled families from Syria and Iraq to co-create works together over the course of two years, and culminated in a series of exhibitions in Swarthmore, Philadelphia, and New York. Friendship and building intercultural relationships was at the heart of FPS, which we argue exemplifies the ways in which community-based, socially engaged art can function as a pathway to peace and social justice in local communities. The project, which formally ended in 2019, has had ripple effects in the resettled community of Philadelphia, and project collaborators continue to work closely together to promote peace in the City through arts and culture initiatives

    Toward an Understanding of Media Policy and Media Systems in Iraq

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    Part 1: Policy Recommendations Concerning Broadcasting in Iraq- Communications and Media Commission of Iraq This study was commissioned by the Communications and Media Commission of Iraq (CMC) as part of its efforts to stimulate debate on ways to improve the broadcasting sector in Iraq. The most immediate goal of this document is to describe the current regulatory framework in Iraq and to make policy recommendations for change for use by the CMC, Iraqi policy makers and international and local donors and implementing organizations. This draft was presented at a conference on Iraqi media funded by the CMC and co-hosted by UNESCO and UNDP, with the support of Official Development Assistance of Japan and the European Union. This conference took place at UNESCO headquarters in Paris in January 2007. A future goal of the study will be to provide a snapshot of the Iraqi broadcasting sector as it is today. A more comprehensive version of this study addressing this aim is being prepared and is to be published by the CMC at a later date. The subsequent draft will take into consideration comments submitted on this draft. It is important to note that the CMC’s commissioning and publication of this report does not mean it endorses its content or its recommendations. It remains a working document pending further discussions. The CMC would like to express its gratitude to the Stanhope Centre for undertaking this important study in very challenging circumstances. Part 2: The Dynamics of Iraq’s Media- Ibrahim Al-Marashi A recurring theme in debates on the future of Iraq is that the state is facing an imminent civil war among ethnic Kurds, Turkmens and Arabs, and among the Sunni and Shi’a Muslim sects. As tensions continue to escalate, the Iraqi media will play a crucial role in these developments. The pluralization of a private media sector in post-Ba’athist Iraq has served as a positive development in Iraq’s post-war transition, yet this has also allowed for the emergence of local media that are forming along ethno-sectarian lines. The Iraqi media have evolved to a stage where they now have the capability of reinforcing the country’s ethno-sectarian divisions. This policy paper examines the evolution and current state of Iraq’s media and offers recommendations to local Iraqi actors, as well as regional and international organizations, as to how the media can counter employment of negative images and stereotypes of other ethno-sectarian communities and influence public attitudes in overcoming such tensions in Iraqi society

    Analysis and evaluation of criteria for pre-selecting contractors in the Saudi Arabian construction sector

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    The construction industry in Saudi Arabia is experiencing dramatic developments and expansion due to recent changes in the Kingdom’s socio-economic development policies. The selection of construction contractors is an essential component in the success of projects yet there is both a lack of skilled manpower and a lack of experience in terms of managing major projects within Saudi Arabia. Thus, appropriate tools are required to select, evaluate, measure and monitor the performance of construction contractors. This paper critically analyses and evaluates current techniques for pre-selecting contractors and identifies the most appropriate techniques and criteria that could be adopted in Saudi Arabia. This has been achieved by undertaking a critical analysis of the literature and by carrying out preliminary interviews with practitioners in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this initial research have been used to establish the scope of work that will later form the basis of PhD researc

    Toward an Understanding of Media Policy and Media Systems in Iraq: A Foreword and Two Reports

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    In the avalanche of analyses about what went wrong in Iraq, one area should be of particular interest to communications scholars: the development of a media system in Iraq. The emerging media system incorporates many significant strands: the conflict-related and post-conflict actions concerning media policy, the considerable growth of faction-related and entrepreneurial broadcasters after the conflict, the efforts by interests in the region (Iran, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and others) to affect the media environment, interventions by the United States and other Western countries, and their complex and often inept media-related reconstruction initiatives, the effort of non-government organizations (NGOs) to repeat or adopt practices from other conflict zones. There\u27s a tendency in the communications studies literature to be concerned with particular U.S.-centric frames of discussion: access by Western journalists to information, depiction of the United States on Al-Jazeera and other satellite broadcasters, the combination of media and Islam as a mode of altering general public attitudes. I focus here — as an introduction to the two accompanying papers — on the emerging structure of media or media influences domestically in Iraq to understand the influence of the successor to Saddam\u27s state television, the relationship between external state-sponsored influences, and pluralism within, and what consequence media policy or subsidy and private or party patronage has had on media institutions there. Finally, it will become increasingly important to understand the relationship between these media institutions and the actuality of continuing conflict and search for political solutions within Iraq. This Occasional Paper includes two reports. The first is a paper written by Ibrahim Al-Marashi, one of the few scholars systematically tracking media developments within Iraq. Dr. Al-Marashi was a Visiting Scholar at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania in 2006 and has, for the last year, been an Open Society Institute (OSI) Policy Scholar at the Center for Policy Studies at Central European University in Budapest. He has recently joined the faculty at Koç University in Istanbul. The second was commissioned by the Republic of Iraq Communications and Media Commission (CMC), the agency established first under the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) then maintained by the Iraqi governing authorities, and presented at a conference at UNESCO in January 2007. The report is the result of a contract between the CMC and the Stanhope Centre for Communications Policy Research in London

    Effect of silicic acid and other silicon compounds on fungal growth in oligotrophic and nutrient-rich media

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    Mycelium grew from a spore-mycelial inoculum of Aspergillus oryzae added to ultra-pure water (upw) containing silicon compounds, but did not grow in upw alone. Growth of other fungi also occurred in upw only when silicon compounds were added. Increased growth of A. oryzae, and other fungi, also followed the addition of silicic acid and other silicon compounds to Czapek Dox. Aspergillus oryzae solubilized silicon compounds in both upw and nutrient-rich media. Although interactions between microorganisms and silicon have been generally neglected, the results show that silicon compounds can increase fungal growth under both oligotrophic and nutrient-rich conditions

    Infections caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with hematological disorders and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant, a twelve year retrospective study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Tuberculous infections in patients with hematological disorders and hematopoietic stem cell transplant vary in incidence, complications and response to treatment.</p> <p>Methods and materials</p> <p>A retrospective study of patients with various benign and malignant hematological disorders and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant who were treated at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia between January 1991 and December 2002 and who developed tuberculous infections was conducted.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Tuberculous infections occurred in eighteen patients with hematological disorders and hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The main associated factors were: reduced immunity due to the primary hematological disorder, age more than 50 years and the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy, steroids or radiotherapy. These infections frequently involved the lungs and predominantly occurred in males and in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. In patients treated with intravenous cytotoxic chemotherapy, tuberculous infections tended to occur earlier and also tended to be more disseminated compared to infections occurring in patients treated with oral chemotherapy. Anti-tuberculous treatment was given to 16 patients and it was successful in 15 of these patients.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Tuberculous infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with various hematological disorders and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The early administration of anti-tuberculous therapy and compliance with drug treatment are associated with successful outcomes while delayed management, drug resistance and the presence of miliary infections are associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates.</p

    Heat shock proteins as modulators and therapeutic targets of chronic disease: an integrated perspective

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    Many heat shock proteins (HSPs) are essential to survival as a consequence of their role as molecular chaperones, and play a critical role in maintaining cellular proteostasis by integrating the fundamental processes of protein folding and degradation. HSPs are arguably among the most prominent classes of proteins that have been broadly linked to many human disorders, with changes in their expression profile and/or intracellular/extracellular location now being described as contributing to the pathogenesis of a number of different diseases. Although the concept was initially controversial, it is now widely accepted that HSPs have additional biological functions over and above their role in proteostasis (so-called ‘protein moonlighting’). Most importantly, these new insights are enlightening our understanding of biological processes in health and disease, and revealing novel and exciting therapeutic opportunities. This theme issue draws on therapeutic insights from established research on HSPs in cancer and other non-communicable disorders, with an emphasis on how the intracellular function of HSPs contrasts with their extracellular properties and function, and interrogates their potential diagnostic and therapeutic value to the prevention, management and treatment of chronic diseases

    Media in the Peace-Building Process: Ethiopia and Iraq

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    Within the broad context of the major issues facing the international development community, Public Sentinel: News Media & Governance Reform focuses on the performance of the news media as an institution in addressing the challenges of governance. The book seeks to consider three related issues: What ideal roles should media systems play to strengthen democratic governance and thus bolster human development? Under what conditions do media systems actually succeed or fail to fulfill these objectives? What policy interventions work most effectively to close the substantial gap which exists between the democratic promise and performance of the news media as an institution

    An overview of sustainability in Saudi Arabia

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    The present demand for economically viable construction projects in the Saudi Public Sector is coupled with the need to maximise the efficient use of Saudi Arabian natural resources. The aim of this paper is to investigate sustainability in Saudi Arabia in terms of strategies, policies, barriers and enablers associated with its implementation and as perceived by key decision makers. It also endeavours to define sustainable construction principles as currently being applied in the country. The data used in this study were obtained through a review of related literature, reinforced with information distilled from interviews conducted with people working in or possessing significant experience of the Saudi Public Sector. The findings show that the Saudi government has made significant efforts towards protecting the environment by enacting a number of regulations and policies and by joining a number of global conventions over the past few years. However, the lack of consideration paid to sustainable construction principles during the conceptual phase of design has resulted undesirable consumption rates of materials, water and energy during the construction, operating and maintenance phases of projects. Moreover, there currently appears to be are lack of awareness, regulation, policies, information and leaderships with regard to implementation of sustainable construction. Several relevant principles for sustainable construction in terms of environmental, economic and social have been elaborated upon; and enablers that could accelerate its understanding and implementation in the country have been highlighted
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