143 research outputs found

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine Attitudes and Use in Caregivers of Patients with Lung Cancer

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    https://digitalcommons.psjhealth.org/summit_all/1071/thumbnail.jp

    A Full-Genomic Sequence-Verified Protein-Coding Gene Collection for Francisella tularensis

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    The rapid development of new technologies for the high throughput (HT) study of proteins has increased the demand for comprehensive plasmid clone resources that support protein expression. These clones must be full-length, sequence-verified and in a flexible format. The generation of these resources requires automated pipelines supported by software management systems. Although the availability of clone resources is growing, current collections are either not complete or not fully sequence-verified. We report an automated pipeline, supported by several software applications that enabled the construction of the first comprehensive sequence-verified plasmid clone resource for more than 96% of protein coding sequences of the genome of F. tularensis, a highly virulent human pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. This clone resource was applied to a HT protein purification pipeline successfully producing recombinant proteins for 72% of the genes. These methods and resources represent significant technological steps towards exploiting the genomic information of F. tularensis in discovery applications

    Effective, Broad Spectrum Control of Virulent Bacterial Infections Using Cationic DNA Liposome Complexes Combined with Bacterial Antigens

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    Protection against virulent pathogens that cause acute, fatal disease is often hampered by development of microbial resistance to traditional chemotherapeutics. Further, most successful pathogens possess an array of immune evasion strategies to avoid detection and elimination by the host. Development of novel, immunomodulatory prophylaxes that target the host immune system, rather than the invading microbe, could serve as effective alternatives to traditional chemotherapies. Here we describe the development and mechanism of a novel pan-anti-bacterial prophylaxis. Using cationic liposome non-coding DNA complexes (CLDC) mixed with crude F. tularensis membrane protein fractions (MPF), we demonstrate control of virulent F. tularensis infection in vitro and in vivo. CLDC+MPF inhibited bacterial replication in primary human and murine macrophages in vitro. Control of infection in macrophages was mediated by both reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mouse cells, and ROS in human cells. Importantly, mice treated with CLDC+MPF 3 days prior to challenge survived lethal intranasal infection with virulent F. tularensis. Similarly to in vitro observations, in vivo protection was dependent on the presence of RNS and ROS. Lastly, CLDC+MPF was also effective at controlling infections with Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Brucella abortus. Thus, CLDC+MPF represents a novel prophylaxis to protect against multiple, highly virulent pathogens

    Erythropoietin Ameliorates Rat Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis by Inducing Transforming Growth Factor-Beta in Macrophages

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    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a pleiotropic cytokine originally identified for its role in erythropoiesis. In addition, in various preclinical models EPO exhibited protective activity against tissue injury. There is an urgent need for potent treatments of autoimmune driven disorders of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a disabling autoimmune disease associated with relevant morbidity and mortality. To test the therapeutic potential of EPO in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) - an animal model of human GBS – immunological and clinical effects were investigated in a preventive and a therapeutic paradigm. Treatment with EPO reduced clinical disease severity and if given therapeutically also shortened the recovery phase of EAN. Clinical findings were mirrored by decreased inflammation within the peripheral nerve, and myelin was well maintained in treated animals. In contrast, EPO increased the number of macrophages especially in later stages of the experimental disease phase. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta was upregulated in the treated cohorts. In vitro experiments revealed less proliferation of T cells in the presence of EPO and TGF-beta was moderately induced, while the secretion of other cytokines was almost not altered by EPO. Our data suggest that EPO revealed its beneficial properties by the induction of beneficial macrophages and the modulation of the immune system towards anti-inflammatory responses in the PNS. Further studies are warranted to elaborate the clinical usefulness of EPO for treating immune-mediated neuropathies in affected patients

    Macrophages Homing to Metastatic Lymph Nodes Can Be Monitored with Ultrasensitive Ferromagnetic Iron-Oxide Nanocubes and a 1.5T Clinical MR Scanner

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    Background: Due to the ability of macrophages to specifically home to tumors, their potential use as a delivery vehicle for cancer therapeutics has been suggested. Tracking the delivery and engraftment of macrophages into human tumors with a 1.5T clinical MR scanner requires the development of sensitive contrast agents for cell labeling. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether intravenously injected macrophages could target a primary tumor as well as metastatic LNs, and whether these cells could be detected in vivo by MRI. Methodology: Peritoneal macrophages were obtained from BALB/c nude mice. The viability, phagocytotic capacity and migratory activity of the macrophages were assessed. MR imaging was performed using a clinical 1.5 T MR scanner and we estimated the T2 * of the labeled macrophages. Metastatic lymph nodes were produced in BALB/c nude mice. We administrated 2610 6 macrophages labeled with 50 mg Fe/mL FIONs intravenously into the mice. In the 3D T2 * GRE MR images obtained one day after the injection of the labeled macrophages or FION solution, the percentages of pixels in the tumors or LNs below the minimum normalized SI (signal intensity) threshold were summated and reported as the black pixel count (%) for the FION hypointensity. Tumors in the main tumor model as well as the brachial, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes in the metastatic LN models were removed and stained. For all statistical analyses, single-group data were assessed using t test or the Mann-Whitney test. Repeated measurements analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey–Krame

    Expression of androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen in male breast carcinoma

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    BACKGROUND: The androgen-regulated proteins prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) are present in high concentrations in normal prostate and prostatic cancer and are considered to be tissue-specific to prostate. These markers are commonly used to diagnose metastatic prostate carcinoma at various sites including the male breast. However, expression of these two proteins in tumors arising in tissues regulated by androgens such as male breast carcinoma has not been thoroughly evaluated. METHODS: In this study we analyzed the expression of PSA, PSAP and androgen receptor (AR) by immunohistochemistry in 26 cases of male breast carcinomas and correlated these with the expression of other prognostic markers. RESULTS: AR, PSA and PSAP expression was observed in 81%, 23% and 0% of carcinomas, respectively. Combined expression of AR and PSA was observed in only four tumors. CONCLUSION: Although the biological significance of PSA expression in male breast carcinomas is not clear, caution should be exercised when it is used as a diagnostic marker of metastatic prostate carcinoma

    Host Factors Required for Modulation of Phagosome Biogenesis and Proliferation of Francisella tularensis within the Cytosol

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    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious facultative intracellular bacterium that can be transmitted between mammals by arthropod vectors. Similar to many other intracellular bacteria that replicate within the cytosol, such as Listeria, Shigella, Burkholderia, and Rickettsia, the virulence of F. tularensis depends on its ability to modulate biogenesis of its phagosome and to escape into the host cell cytosol where it proliferates. Recent studies have identified the F. tularensis genes required for modulation of phagosome biogenesis and escape into the host cell cytosol within human and arthropod-derived cells. However, the arthropod and mammalian host factors required for intracellular proliferation of F. tularensis are not known. We have utilized a forward genetic approach employing genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila melanogaster-derived cells. Screening a library of ∼21,300 RNAi, we have identified at least 186 host factors required for intracellular bacterial proliferation. We silenced twelve mammalian homologues by RNAi in HEK293T cells and identified three conserved factors, the PI4 kinase PI4KCA, the ubiquitin hydrolase USP22, and the ubiquitin ligase CDC27, which are also required for replication in human cells. The PI4KCA and USP22 mammalian factors are not required for modulation of phagosome biogenesis or phagosomal escape but are required for proliferation within the cytosol. In contrast, the CDC27 ubiquitin ligase is required for evading lysosomal fusion and for phagosomal escape into the cytosol. Although F. tularensis interacts with the autophagy pathway during late stages of proliferation in mouse macrophages, this does not occur in human cells. Our data suggest that F. tularensis utilizes host ubiquitin turnover in distinct mechanisms during the phagosomal and cytosolic phases and phosphoinositide metabolism is essential for cytosolic proliferation of F. tularensis. Our data will facilitate deciphering molecular ecology, patho-adaptation of F. tularensis to the arthropod vector and its role in bacterial ecology and patho-evolution to infect mammals

    The Involvement of IL-17A in the Murine Response to Sub-Lethal Inhalational Infection with Francisella tularensis

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    Background: Francisella tularensis is an intercellular bacterium often causing fatal disease when inhaled. Previous reports have underlined the role of cell-mediated immunity and IFNc in the host response to Francisella tularensis infection. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we provide evidence for the involvement of IL-17A in host defense to inhalational tularemia, using a mouse model of intranasal infection with the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS). We demonstrate the kinetics of IL-17A production in lavage fluids of infected lungs and identify the IL-17A-producing lymphocytes as pulmonary cd and Th17 cells. The peak of IL-17A production appears early during sub-lethal infection, it precedes the peak of immune activation and the nadir of the disease, and then subsides subsequently. Exogenous airway administration of IL-17A or of IL-23 had a limited yet consistent effect of delaying the onset of death from a lethal dose of LVS, implying that IL-17A may be involved in restraining the infection. The protective role for IL-17A was directly demonstrated by in vivo neutralization of IL-17A. Administration of anti IL-17A antibodies concomitantly to a sub-lethal airway infection with 0.16LD50 resulted in a fatal disease. Conclusion: In summary, these data characterize the involvement and underline the protective key role of the IL-17A axis in the lungs from inhalational tularemia

    Study of Leishmania pathogenesis in mice : experimental considerations

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    Although leishmaniases are endemic in 98 countries, they are still considered neglected tropical diseases. Leishmaniases are characterized by the emergence of new virulent and asymptomatic strains of Leishmania spp. and, as a consequence, by a very diverse clinical spectrum. To fight more efficiently these parasites, the mechanisms of host defense and of parasite virulence need to be thoroughly investigated. To this aim, animal models are widely used. However, the results obtained with these models are influenced by several experimental parameters, such as the mouse genetic background, parasite genotype, inoculation route/infection site, parasite dose and phlebotome saliva. In this review, we propose an update on their influence in the two main clinical forms of the disease: cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases
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