21,404 research outputs found

### Exact String Solutions in Nontrivial Backgrounds

We show how the classical string dynamics in $D$-dimensional gravity
background can be reduced to the dynamics of a massless particle constrained on
a certain surface whenever there exists at least one Killing vector for the
background metric. We obtain a number of sufficient conditions, which ensure
the existence of exact solutions to the equations of motion and constraints.
These results are extended to include the Kalb-Ramond background. The
$D1$-brane dynamics is also analyzed and exact solutions are found. Finally, we
illustrate our considerations with several examples in different dimensions.
All this also applies to the tensionless strings.Comment: 22 pages, LaTeX, no figures; V2:Comments and references added;
V3:Discussion on the properties of the obtained solutions extended, a
reference and acknowledgment added; V4:The references renumbered, to appear
in Phys Rev.

### Exact String Solutions in 2+1-Dimensional De Sitter Spacetime

Exact and explicit string solutions in de Sitter spacetime are found. (Here,
the string equations reduce to a sinh-Gordon model). A new feature without flat
spacetime analogy appears: starting with a single world-sheet, several (here
two) strings emerge. One string is stable and the other (unstable) grows as the
universe grows. Their invariant size and energy either grow as the expansion
factor or tend to constant. Moreover, strings can expand (contract) for large
(small) universe radius with a different rate than the universe.Comment: 11 pages, Phyzzx macropackage used, PAR-LPTHE 92/32. Revised version
with a new understanding of the previous result

### Exact solution of the $SU_{q}(n)$ invariant quantum spin chains

The Nested Bethe Ansatz is generalized to open boundary conditions. This is
used to find the exact eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the $A_{n-1}$ vertex
model with fixed open boundary conditions and the corresponding $SU_{q}(n)$
invariant hamiltonian.
The Bethe Ansatz equations obtained are solved in the thermodynamic limit
giving the vertex model free energy and the hamiltonian ground state energy
including the corresponding boundary contributions.Comment: 29 page

### Semi-Classical Quantization of Circular Strings in De Sitter and Anti De Sitter Spacetimes

We compute the {\it exact} equation of state of circular strings in the (2+1)
dimensional de Sitter (dS) and anti de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes, and analyze its
properties for the different (oscillating, contracting and expanding) strings.
The string equation of state has the perfect fluid form $P=(\gamma-1)E,$ with
the pressure and energy expressed closely and completely in terms of elliptic
functions, the instantaneous coefficient $\gamma$ depending on the elliptic
modulus. We semi-classically quantize the oscillating circular strings. The
string mass is $m=\sqrt{C}/(\pi H\alpha'),\;C$ being the Casimir operator,
$C=-L_{\mu\nu}L^{\mu\nu},$ of the $O(3,1)$-dS [$O(2,2)$-AdS] group, and $H$ is
the Hubble constant. We find \alpha'm^2_{\mbox{dS}}\approx 5.9n,\;(n\in N_0),
and a {\it finite} number of states N_{\mbox{dS}}\approx 0.17/(H^2\alpha') in
de Sitter spacetime; m^2_{\mbox{AdS}}\approx 4H^2n^2 (large $n\in N_0$) and
N_{\mbox{AdS}}=\infty in anti de Sitter spacetime. The level spacing grows
with $n$ in AdS spacetime, while is approximately constant (although larger
than in Minkowski spacetime) in dS spacetime. The massive states in dS
spacetime decay through tunnel effect and the semi-classical decay probability
is computed. The semi-classical quantization of {\it exact} (circular) strings
and the canonical quantization of generic string perturbations around the
string center of mass strongly agree.Comment: Latex, 26 pages + 2 tables and 5 figures that can be obtained from
the authors on request. DEMIRM-Obs de Paris-9404

### Planetoid String Solutions in 3 + 1 Axisymmetric Spacetimes

The string propagation equations in axisymmetric spacetimes are exactly
solved by quadratures for a planetoid Ansatz. This is a straight
non-oscillating string, radially disposed, which rotates uniformly around the
symmetry axis of the spacetime. In Schwarzschild black holes, the string stays
outside the horizon pointing towards the origin. In de Sitter spacetime the
planetoid rotates around its center. We quantize semiclassically these
solutions and analyze the spin/(mass$^2$) (Regge) relation for the planetoids,
which turns out to be non-linear.Comment: Latex file, 14 pages, two figures in .ps files available from the
author

### Natural History of Acute Subdural Hematoma

Although guidelines for surgical decision-making in patients with acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) are widely available, the evidence supporting these guidelines is weak, and management of these patients must often be individualized. Smaller ASDHs in patients in good neurologic condition usually can be successfully managed without surgery. Large ASDHs with minimal mass effect in patients with minimal symptoms also may be considered for nonoperative management. The literature is divided about the effects of anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications on rapid growth of ASDHs and on their likelihood of progression to large chronic subdural hematomas, but it is reasonable to reverse the effects of these medications promptly. Close clinical and radiologic follow-up is needed in these patients, both acutely to detect rapid expansion of an ASDH, and subacutely to detect formation of a large subacute or chronic subdural hematoma

### Strings in Cosmological and Black Hole Backgrounds: Ring Solutions

The string equations of motion and constraints are solved for a ring shaped
Ansatz in cosmological and black hole spacetimes. In FRW universes with
arbitrary power behavior [R(X^0) = a\;|X^0|^{\a}\, ], the asymptotic form of
the solution is found for both $X^0 \to 0$ and $X^0 \to \infty$ and we plot the
numerical solution for all times. Right after the big bang ($X^0 = 0$), the
string energy decreasess as $R(X^0)^{-1}$ and the string size grows as $R(X^0)$ for $0 1$. Very
soon [ $X^0 \sim 1$] , the ring reaches its oscillatory regime with frequency
equal to the winding and constant size and energy. This picture holds for all
values of \a including string vacua (for which, asymptotically, \a = 1).
In addition, an exact non-oscillatory ring solution is found. For black hole
spacetimes (Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstr\oo m and stringy), we solve for
ring strings moving towards the center. Depending on their initial conditions
(essentially the oscillation phase), they are are absorbed or not by
Schwarzschild black holes. The phenomenon of particle transmutation is
explicitly observed (for rings not swallowed by the hole). An effective horizon
is noticed for the rings. Exact and explicit ring solutions inside the
horizon(s) are found. They may be interpreted as strings propagating between
the different universes described by the full black hole manifold.Comment: Paris preprint PAR-LPTHE-93/43. Uses phyzzx. Includes figures. Text
and figures compressed using uufile

### Quasinormal frequencies of asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes

We discuss whether the minimally coupled massless Klein-Gordon and Dirac
fields have well defined quasinormal modes in single horizon, asymptotically
flat two-dimensional black holes. To get the result we solve the equations of
motion in the massless limit and we also calculate the effective potentials of
Schrodinger type equations. Furthermore we calculate exactly the quasinormal
frequencies of the Dirac field propagating in the two-dimensional uncharged
Witten black hole. We compare our results on its quasinormal frequencies with
other already published.Comment: 12 pages. Accepted for publication in Gen. Rel. and Gra

### Impurity in a granular gas under nonlinear Couette flow

We study in this work the transport properties of an impurity immersed in a
granular gas under stationary nonlinear Couette flow. The starting point is a
kinetic model for low-density granular mixtures recently proposed by the
authors [Vega Reyes F et al. 2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 061306]. Two routes have been
considered. First, a hydrodynamic or normal solution is found by exploiting a
formal mapping between the kinetic equations for the gas particles and for the
impurity. We show that the transport properties of the impurity are
characterized by the ratio between the temperatures of the impurity and gas
particles and by five generalized transport coefficients: three related to the
momentum flux (a nonlinear shear viscosity and two normal stress differences)
and two related to the heat flux (a nonlinear thermal conductivity and a cross
coefficient measuring a component of the heat flux orthogonal to the thermal
gradient). Second, by means of a Monte Carlo simulation method we numerically
solve the kinetic equations and show that our hydrodynamic solution is valid in
the bulk of the fluid when realistic boundary conditions are used. Furthermore,
the hydrodynamic solution applies to arbitrarily (inside the continuum regime)
large values of the shear rate, of the inelasticity, and of the rest of
parameters of the system. Preliminary simulation results of the true Boltzmann
description show the reliability of the nonlinear hydrodynamic solution of the
kinetic model. This shows again the validity of a hydrodynamic description for
granular flows, even under extreme conditions, beyond the Navier-Stokes domain.Comment: 23 pages, 11 figures; v2: Preliminary DSMC results from the Boltzmann
equation included, Fig. 11 is ne

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