21,404 research outputs found

    Exact String Solutions in Nontrivial Backgrounds

    Full text link
    We show how the classical string dynamics in DD-dimensional gravity background can be reduced to the dynamics of a massless particle constrained on a certain surface whenever there exists at least one Killing vector for the background metric. We obtain a number of sufficient conditions, which ensure the existence of exact solutions to the equations of motion and constraints. These results are extended to include the Kalb-Ramond background. The D1D1-brane dynamics is also analyzed and exact solutions are found. Finally, we illustrate our considerations with several examples in different dimensions. All this also applies to the tensionless strings.Comment: 22 pages, LaTeX, no figures; V2:Comments and references added; V3:Discussion on the properties of the obtained solutions extended, a reference and acknowledgment added; V4:The references renumbered, to appear in Phys Rev.

    Exact String Solutions in 2+1-Dimensional De Sitter Spacetime

    Get PDF
    Exact and explicit string solutions in de Sitter spacetime are found. (Here, the string equations reduce to a sinh-Gordon model). A new feature without flat spacetime analogy appears: starting with a single world-sheet, several (here two) strings emerge. One string is stable and the other (unstable) grows as the universe grows. Their invariant size and energy either grow as the expansion factor or tend to constant. Moreover, strings can expand (contract) for large (small) universe radius with a different rate than the universe.Comment: 11 pages, Phyzzx macropackage used, PAR-LPTHE 92/32. Revised version with a new understanding of the previous result

    Exact solution of the SUq(n)SU_{q}(n) invariant quantum spin chains

    Full text link
    The Nested Bethe Ansatz is generalized to open boundary conditions. This is used to find the exact eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the An1A_{n-1} vertex model with fixed open boundary conditions and the corresponding SUq(n)SU_{q}(n) invariant hamiltonian. The Bethe Ansatz equations obtained are solved in the thermodynamic limit giving the vertex model free energy and the hamiltonian ground state energy including the corresponding boundary contributions.Comment: 29 page

    Semi-Classical Quantization of Circular Strings in De Sitter and Anti De Sitter Spacetimes

    Get PDF
    We compute the {\it exact} equation of state of circular strings in the (2+1) dimensional de Sitter (dS) and anti de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes, and analyze its properties for the different (oscillating, contracting and expanding) strings. The string equation of state has the perfect fluid form P=(γ1)E,P=(\gamma-1)E, with the pressure and energy expressed closely and completely in terms of elliptic functions, the instantaneous coefficient γ\gamma depending on the elliptic modulus. We semi-classically quantize the oscillating circular strings. The string mass is m=C/(πHα),  Cm=\sqrt{C}/(\pi H\alpha'),\;C being the Casimir operator, C=LμνLμν,C=-L_{\mu\nu}L^{\mu\nu}, of the O(3,1)O(3,1)-dS [O(2,2)O(2,2)-AdS] group, and HH is the Hubble constant. We find \alpha'm^2_{\mbox{dS}}\approx 5.9n,\;(n\in N_0), and a {\it finite} number of states N_{\mbox{dS}}\approx 0.17/(H^2\alpha') in de Sitter spacetime; m^2_{\mbox{AdS}}\approx 4H^2n^2 (large nN0n\in N_0) and N_{\mbox{AdS}}=\infty in anti de Sitter spacetime. The level spacing grows with nn in AdS spacetime, while is approximately constant (although larger than in Minkowski spacetime) in dS spacetime. The massive states in dS spacetime decay through tunnel effect and the semi-classical decay probability is computed. The semi-classical quantization of {\it exact} (circular) strings and the canonical quantization of generic string perturbations around the string center of mass strongly agree.Comment: Latex, 26 pages + 2 tables and 5 figures that can be obtained from the authors on request. DEMIRM-Obs de Paris-9404

    Planetoid String Solutions in 3 + 1 Axisymmetric Spacetimes

    Get PDF
    The string propagation equations in axisymmetric spacetimes are exactly solved by quadratures for a planetoid Ansatz. This is a straight non-oscillating string, radially disposed, which rotates uniformly around the symmetry axis of the spacetime. In Schwarzschild black holes, the string stays outside the horizon pointing towards the origin. In de Sitter spacetime the planetoid rotates around its center. We quantize semiclassically these solutions and analyze the spin/(mass2^2) (Regge) relation for the planetoids, which turns out to be non-linear.Comment: Latex file, 14 pages, two figures in .ps files available from the author

    Natural History of Acute Subdural Hematoma

    Get PDF
    Although guidelines for surgical decision-making in patients with acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) are widely available, the evidence supporting these guidelines is weak, and management of these patients must often be individualized. Smaller ASDHs in patients in good neurologic condition usually can be successfully managed without surgery. Large ASDHs with minimal mass effect in patients with minimal symptoms also may be considered for nonoperative management. The literature is divided about the effects of anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications on rapid growth of ASDHs and on their likelihood of progression to large chronic subdural hematomas, but it is reasonable to reverse the effects of these medications promptly. Close clinical and radiologic follow-up is needed in these patients, both acutely to detect rapid expansion of an ASDH, and subacutely to detect formation of a large subacute or chronic subdural hematoma

    Strings in Cosmological and Black Hole Backgrounds: Ring Solutions

    Full text link
    The string equations of motion and constraints are solved for a ring shaped Ansatz in cosmological and black hole spacetimes. In FRW universes with arbitrary power behavior [R(X^0) = a\;|X^0|^{\a}\, ], the asymptotic form of the solution is found for both X00X^0 \to 0 and X0X^0 \to \infty and we plot the numerical solution for all times. Right after the big bang (X0=0X^0 = 0), the string energy decreasess as R(X0)1 R(X^0)^{-1} and the string size grows as R(X0) R(X^0) for 01 0 1 . Very soon [ X01 X^0 \sim 1 ] , the ring reaches its oscillatory regime with frequency equal to the winding and constant size and energy. This picture holds for all values of \a including string vacua (for which, asymptotically, \a = 1). In addition, an exact non-oscillatory ring solution is found. For black hole spacetimes (Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstr\oo m and stringy), we solve for ring strings moving towards the center. Depending on their initial conditions (essentially the oscillation phase), they are are absorbed or not by Schwarzschild black holes. The phenomenon of particle transmutation is explicitly observed (for rings not swallowed by the hole). An effective horizon is noticed for the rings. Exact and explicit ring solutions inside the horizon(s) are found. They may be interpreted as strings propagating between the different universes described by the full black hole manifold.Comment: Paris preprint PAR-LPTHE-93/43. Uses phyzzx. Includes figures. Text and figures compressed using uufile

    Quasinormal frequencies of asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes

    Full text link
    We discuss whether the minimally coupled massless Klein-Gordon and Dirac fields have well defined quasinormal modes in single horizon, asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes. To get the result we solve the equations of motion in the massless limit and we also calculate the effective potentials of Schrodinger type equations. Furthermore we calculate exactly the quasinormal frequencies of the Dirac field propagating in the two-dimensional uncharged Witten black hole. We compare our results on its quasinormal frequencies with other already published.Comment: 12 pages. Accepted for publication in Gen. Rel. and Gra

    Impurity in a granular gas under nonlinear Couette flow

    Full text link
    We study in this work the transport properties of an impurity immersed in a granular gas under stationary nonlinear Couette flow. The starting point is a kinetic model for low-density granular mixtures recently proposed by the authors [Vega Reyes F et al. 2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 061306]. Two routes have been considered. First, a hydrodynamic or normal solution is found by exploiting a formal mapping between the kinetic equations for the gas particles and for the impurity. We show that the transport properties of the impurity are characterized by the ratio between the temperatures of the impurity and gas particles and by five generalized transport coefficients: three related to the momentum flux (a nonlinear shear viscosity and two normal stress differences) and two related to the heat flux (a nonlinear thermal conductivity and a cross coefficient measuring a component of the heat flux orthogonal to the thermal gradient). Second, by means of a Monte Carlo simulation method we numerically solve the kinetic equations and show that our hydrodynamic solution is valid in the bulk of the fluid when realistic boundary conditions are used. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic solution applies to arbitrarily (inside the continuum regime) large values of the shear rate, of the inelasticity, and of the rest of parameters of the system. Preliminary simulation results of the true Boltzmann description show the reliability of the nonlinear hydrodynamic solution of the kinetic model. This shows again the validity of a hydrodynamic description for granular flows, even under extreme conditions, beyond the Navier-Stokes domain.Comment: 23 pages, 11 figures; v2: Preliminary DSMC results from the Boltzmann equation included, Fig. 11 is ne
    corecore