203 research outputs found

    Study of ion feedback in multi-GEM structures

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    We study the feedback of positive ions in triple and quadruple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. The effects of GEM hole diameter, detector gain, applied voltages, number of GEMs and other parameters on ion feedback are investigated in detail. In particular, it was found that the ion feedback is independent of the gas mixture and the pressure. In the optimized multi-GEM structure, the ion feedback current can be suppressed down to 0.5% of the anode current, at a drift field of 0.1 kV/cm and gain of 10^4. A simple model of ion feedback in multi-GEM structures is suggested. The results obtained are relevant to the performance of time projection chambers and gas photomultipliers.Comment: 9 pages, 11 figures. Submitted to Nucl. Instr. and Meth.

    Self-reported symptoms of chronic cough and breathlessness in working-age men in the city of Izhevsk, Russia: associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors and comorbidities.

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    INTRODUCTION: Very little is known about the prevalence of respiratory symptoms or their associations with other health conditions in Russia. METHODS: Between 2008 and 2010, a sample of 983 men resident in Izhevsk, Russia, took part in a cross-sectional survey. Presence of respiratory symptoms was determined from self-report of chronic productive cough and breathlessness assessed using the British Medical Research Council (MRC) breathlessness scale. Self-reported physical and mental health were measured using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Hypertension was assessed from mean blood pressure measured at the health check and/or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. Other comorbidities were assessed from self-report. Logistic regression models were fitted assessing the association between respiratory symptoms and comorbidities. Linear regression models were fitted to investigate the association between respiratory symptoms and self-reported health scores. All models were adjusted for age, education and smoking status. RESULTS: The age-standardised prevalence of cough and breathlessness was 20.9% (prevalence with breathlessness MRC grade 3 or above 3.7%). The majority of men with respiratory symptoms (87.3%) were current smokers. Cough and breathlessness were associated with substantially worse self-reported physical and mental health (test for trend with severity of breathlessness p<0.001). Those with chronic cough and grade 3 or above breathlessness had higher odds of having hypertension (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.36 to 6.74), diabetes (OR 10.55; 95% CI 2.69 to 41.37), angina pectoris (OR 7.54; 95% CI 3.61 to 15.73), previous myocardial infarction (OR 7.61; 95% CI 2.10 to 27.4) and previous stroke (OR 6.61; 95% CI 1.75 to 23.34) compared with those without respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high. Strong associations were found between respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular comorbidities. These are of particular importance given the extremely high level of cardiovascular disease mortality in Russia

    A flat compound piezoelectric actuator of a type “a shaking beam”

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    It is investigated piezoelectric actuator, consisting of two flat converters of longitudinal fluctuations which ends are close by the hence – « a shaking beam ». Also is resulted the principle of work actuator in quality stator of the motor, and also as the ultrasonic concentrator of fluctuations. Additionally is made research of it actuator with the help of programs computer modeling. And is carried out optimization of the sizes driver hence actuator. Theoretical researches are confirmed experimentally, with the help of the precision laser equipmen

    A device to characterize optical fibres

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    ATLAS is a general purpose experiment approved for the LHC collider at CERN. An important component of the detector is the central hadronic calorimeter; for its construction more than 600,000 Wave Length Shifting (WLS) fibres (corresponding to a total length of 1,120 Km) have been used. We have built and put into operation a dedicated instrument for the measurement of light yield and attenuation length over groups of 20 fibres at a time. The overall accuracy achieved in the measurement of light yield (attenuation length) is 1.5% (3%). We also report the results obtained using this method in the quality control of a large sample of fibres.Comment: 17 pages 20 figeres submitted to NIM journa

    Postural balance strategies for experienced rhythmic gymnasts in two-legged stands

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    Objective: The purpose of this study was to find out the indicators of the distribution of plantar pressure in the two-legged stands with open and closed eyes in experienced rhythmic gymnasts.Materials and methods: 31 highly qualified gymnasts (candidates and masters of sports of Russia), age 18.5 ± 0.5 years, experience in rhythmic gymnastics 13.5 ± 1.5, performed three upright postures on the footscan ® podometric platform of RSscan: the main stand, a modified Romberg test with open and closed eyes. Postural control was assessed by quantifying the plantar pressure (P%) in relation to 4 zones of the right and left foot and the trajectory of the movement of the center of pressure (CP) over time intervals.Results: The results of the study showed the presence of a right-sided distribution of plantar pressure in two-legged stands in experienced gymnasts. The regulation of posture occurs mainly in the anterior-posterior direction, but has different strategies for managing balance. The sagittal-cross pattern determines the interaction of plantar pressure between the right and left feet in the basic pose. The Romberg test with open eyes (EO) and closed eyes (EC) characterizes sagittal-parallel and sagittal-asymmetric balance, respectively. We revealed an increase in the vibrations of the gymnast's body in the absence of visual information for only the first 12 seconds.Conclusions: We have identified a variety of combinations of two types of strategies while maintaining posture in simple poses. This indicates the ability of experienced gymnasts to fine-tune the postural stability, including in the absence of visual information
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