2,608 research outputs found

    The Connection Between Reddening, Gas Covering Fraction, and the Escape of Ionizing Radiation at High Redshift

    Get PDF
    We use a large sample of galaxies at z~3 to establish a relationship between reddening, neutral gas covering fraction (fcov(HI)), and the escape of ionizing photons at high redshift. Our sample includes 933 galaxies at z~3, 121 of which have very deep spectroscopic observations (>7 hrs) in the rest-UV (lambda=850-1300 A) with Keck/LRIS. Based on the high covering fraction of outflowing optically-thick HI indicated by the composite spectra of these galaxies, we conclude that photoelectric absorption, rather than dust attenuation, dominates the depletion of ionizing photons. By modeling the composite spectra as the combination of an unattenuated stellar spectrum including nebular continuum emission with one that is absorbed by HI and reddened by a line-of-sight extinction, we derive an empirical relationship between E(B-V) and fcov(HI). Galaxies with redder UV continua have larger covering fractions of HI characterized by higher line-of-sight extinctions. Our results are consistent with the escape of Lya through gas-free lines-of-sight. Covering fractions based on low-ionization interstellar absorption lines systematically underpredict those deduced from the HI lines, suggesting that much of the outflowing gas may be metal-poor. We develop a model which connects the ionizing escape fraction with E(B-V), and which may be used to estimate the escape fraction for an ensemble of high-redshift galaxies. Alternatively, direct measurements of the escape fraction for our data allow us to constrain the intrinsic 900-to-1500 A flux density ratio to be >0.20, a value that favors stellar population models that include weaker stellar winds, a flatter initial mass function, and/or binary evolution. Lastly, we demonstrate how the framework discussed here may be used to assess the pathways by which ionizing radiation escapes from high-redshift galaxies. [Abridged]Comment: 22 pages, 3 tables, 14 figures, accepted to the Astrophysical Journa

    Star-forming Galaxies in the 'Redshift Desert'

    Get PDF
    We describe results of optical and near-IR observations of a large spectroscopic sample of star-forming galaxies photometrically-selected to lie in the redshift range 1.4 < z < 2.5, often called the ``redshift desert'' because of historical difficulty in obtaining spectroscopic redshifts in this range. We show that the former ``redshift desert'' is now very much open to observation.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figures, to appear in the Proceedings of the ESO/USM/MPE Workshop on "Multiwavelength Mapping of Galaxy Formation and Evolution", eds. R. Bender and A. Renzin

    Fine-Structure FeII* Emission and Resonant MgII Emission in z = 1 Star-Forming Galaxies

    Full text link
    We present a study of the prevalence, strength, and kinematics of ultraviolet FeII and MgII emission lines in 212 star-forming galaxies at z = 1 selected from the DEEP2 survey. We find FeII* emission in composite spectra assembled on the basis of different galaxy properties, indicating that FeII* emission is prevalent at z = 1. In these composites, FeII* emission is observed at roughly the systemic velocity. At z = 1, we find that the strength of FeII* emission is most strongly modulated by dust attenuation, and is additionally correlated with redshift, star-formation rate, and [OII] equivalent width, such that systems at higher redshifts with lower dust levels, lower star-formation rates, and larger [OII] equivalent widths show stronger FeII* emission. We detect MgII emission in at least 15% of the individual spectra and we find that objects showing stronger MgII emission have higher specific star-formation rates, smaller [OII] linewidths, larger [OII] equivalent widths, lower dust attenuations, and lower stellar masses than the sample as a whole. MgII emission strength exhibits the strongest correlation with specific star-formation rate, although we find evidence that dust attenuation and stellar mass also play roles in the regulation of MgII emission. Future integral field unit observations of the spatial extent of FeII* and MgII emission in galaxies with high specific star-formation rates, low dust attenuations, and low stellar masses will be important for probing the morphology of circumgalactic gas.Comment: 29 pages, 22 figures, 2 tables; accepted to Ap

    Probing the Ionization State of the Universe at z>6

    Full text link
    We present high signal-to-noise ratio Keck ESI spectra of the two quasars known to have Gunn-Peterson absorption troughs, SDSS J1030+0524 (z=6.28) and SDSS J1148+5251 (z=6.37). The Ly alpha and Ly beta troughs for SDSS J1030+0524 are very black and show no evidence for any emission over a redshift interval of ~0.2 starting at z=6. On the other hand, SDSS J1148+5251 shows a number of emission peaks in the Ly beta Gunn-Peterson trough along with a single weak peak in the Ly alpha trough. The Ly alpha emission has corresponding Ly beta emission, suggesting that it is indeed a region of lower optical depth in the intergalactic medium at z=6.08. The stronger Ly beta peaks in the spectrum of SDSS J1148+5251 could conceivably also be the result of "leaks" in the IGM, but we suggest that they are instead Ly alpha emission from an intervening galaxy at z=4.9. This hypothesis gains credence from a strong complex of C IV absorption at the same redshift and from the detection of continuum emission in the Ly alpha trough at the expected brightness. If this proposal is correct, the quasar light has probably been magnified through gravitational lensing by the intervening galaxy. The Stromgren sphere observed in the absorption spectrum of SDSS J1148+5251 is significantly smaller than expected based on its brightness, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the quasar is lensed. If our argument for lensing is correct, the optical depths derived from the troughs of SDSS J1148+5251 are only lower limits (albeit still quite strong, with tau(LyA)>16 inferred from the Ly beta trough.) The Ly beta absorption trough of SDSS J1030+0524 gives the single best measurement of the IGM transmission at z>6, with an inferred optical depth tau(LyA)>22.Comment: To appear in July 2003 AJ, 34 pages, 11 figures; minor changes/typos fixe

    Matching structure and bargaining outcomes in buyer–seller networks

    Get PDF
    We examine the relationship between the matching structure of a bipartite (buyer-seller) network and the (expected) shares of the unit surplus that each connected pair in this network can create. We show that in different bargaining environments, these shares are closely related to the Gallai-Edmonds Structure Theorem. This theorem characterizes the structure of maximum matchings in an undirected graph. We show that the relationship between the (expected) shares and the tructure Theorem is not an artefact of a particular bargaining mechanism or trade centralization. However, this relationship does not necessarily generalize to non-bipartite networks or to networks with heterogeneous link values

    The Keck Lyman Continuum Spectroscopic Survey (KLCS): The Emergent Ionizing Spectrum of Galaxies at z3z\sim3

    Get PDF
    We present results of a deep spectroscopic survey designed to quantify the statistics of the escape of ionizing photons from star-forming galaxies at z~3. We measure the ratio of ionizing to non-ionizing UV flux density _obs, where f900 is the mean flux density evaluated over the range [880,910] A. We quantify the emergent ratio of ionizing to non-ionizing UV flux density by analyzing high-S/N composite spectra formed from sub-samples with common observed properties and numbers sufficient to reduce the statistical uncertainty in the modeled IGM+CGM correction to obtain precise values of _out, including a full-sample average _out=0.057±0.0060.057\pm0.006. We further show that _out increases monotonically with Lyα\alpha rest equivalent width, inducing an inverse correlation with UV luminosity as a by-product. We fit the composite spectra using stellar spectral synthesis together with models of the ISM in which a fraction f_c of the stellar continuum is covered by gas with column density N(HI). We show that the composite spectra simultaneously constrain the intrinsic properties of the stars (L900/L1500)_int along with f_c, N(HI), E(B-V), and fesc,absf_{esc,abs}, the absolute escape fraction of ionizing photons. We find a sample-averaged fesc,abs=0.09±0.01f_{esc,abs} =0.09\pm0.01, and that subsamples fall along a linear relation fesc,abs0.75[W(Lyα)/110A]\langle f_{esc,abs}\rangle \sim 0.75[W(Ly\alpha)/110 A]. We use the FUV luminosity function, the distribution function n[W(Lyα)]n[W(Ly\alpha)], and the relationship between W(Lyα)W(Ly\alpha) and _out to estimate the total ionizing emissivity of z3z\sim3 star-forming galaxies with Muv < -19.5: ϵLyC6×1024\epsilon_{LyC}\sim 6\times10^{24} ergs/s/Hz/Mpc3^3, exceeding the contribution of QSOs by a factor of 3\sim 3, and accounting for 50\sim50% of the total ϵLyC\epsilon_{LyC} at z3z\sim3 estimated using indirect methods.Comment: 45 pages, 31 figures, ApJ, in pres

    A High-Resolution Hubble Space Telescope Study of Apparent Lyman Continuum Leakers at z3z\sim3

    Get PDF
    We present U336V606J125H160U_{336}V_{606}J_{125}H_{160} follow-up HSTHST observations of 16 z3z\sim3 candidate LyC emitters in the HS1549+1919 field. With these data, we obtain high spatial-resolution photometric redshifts of all sub-arcsecond components of the LyC candidates in order to eliminate foreground contamination and identify robust candidates for leaking LyC emission. Of the 16 candidates, we find one object with a robust LyC detection that is not due to foreground contamination. This object (MD5) resolves into two components; we refer to the LyC-emitting component as MD5b. MD5b has an observed 1500\AA\ to 900\AA\ flux-density ratio of (FUV/FLyC)obs=4.0±2.0(F_{UV}/F_{LyC})_{obs}=4.0\pm2.0, compatible with predictions from stellar population synthesis models. Assuming minimal IGM absorption, this ratio corresponds to a relative (absolute) escape fraction of fesc,relMD5b=75100f_{esc,rel}^{MD5b}=75-100% (fesc,absMD5b=1419f_{esc,abs}^{MD5b}=14-19%). The stellar population fit to MD5b indicates an age of 50\lesssim50Myr, which is in the youngest 10% of the HSTHST sample and the youngest third of typical z3z\sim3 Lyman break galaxies, and may be a contributing factor to its LyC detection. We obtain a revised, contamination-free estimate for the comoving specific ionizing emissivity at z=2.85z=2.85, indicating (with large uncertainties) that star-forming galaxies provide roughly the same contribution as QSOs to the ionizing background at this redshift. Our results show that foreground contamination prevents ground-based LyC studies from obtaining a full understanding of LyC emission from z3z\sim3 star-forming galaxies. Future progress in direct LyC searches is contingent upon the elimination of foreground contaminants through high spatial-resolution observations, and upon acquisition of sufficiently deep LyC imaging to probe ionizing radiation in high-redshift galaxies.Comment: 31 pages, 5 tables, 19 figures. Accepted to ApJ. Version with full-resolution figures is available at: http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~aes/Mostardi_HST_LyC.pd

    The Kinematics of Multiple-Peaked Lyα Emission in Star-Forming Galaxies at z ~ 2-3

    Get PDF
    We present new results on the Lyα emission-line kinematics of 18 z ~ 2-3 star-forming galaxies with multiple-peaked Lyα profiles. With our large spectroscopic database of UV-selected star-forming galaxies at these redshifts, we have determined that ~30% of such objects with detectable Lyα emission display multiple-peaked emission profiles. These profiles provide additional constraints on the escape of Lyα photons due to the rich velocity structure in the emergent line. Despite recent advances in modeling the escape of Lyα from star-forming galaxies at high redshifts, comparisons between models and data are often missing crucial observational information. Using Keck II NIRSPEC spectra of Hα (z ~ 2) and [O III]λ5007 (z ~ 3), we have measured accurate systemic redshifts, rest-frame optical nebular velocity dispersions, and emission-line fluxes for the objects in the sample. In addition, rest-frame UV luminosities and colors provide estimates of star formation rates and the degree of dust extinction. In concert with the profile sub-structure, these measurements provide critical constraints on the geometry and kinematics of interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies. Accurate systemic redshifts allow us to translate the multiple-peaked Lyα profiles into velocity space, revealing that the majority (11/18) display double-peaked emission straddling the velocity-field zero point with stronger red-side emission. Interstellar absorption-line kinematics suggest the presence of large-scale outflows for the majority of objects in our sample, with an average measured interstellar absorption velocity offset of (Δv_(abs))=–230 km s^(–1). A comparison of the interstellar absorption kinematics for objects with multiple- and single-peaked Lyα profiles indicate that the multiple-peaked objects are characterized by significantly narrower absorption line widths. We compare our data with the predictions of simple models for outflowing and infalling gas distributions around high-redshift galaxies. While popular "shell" models provide a qualitative match with many of the observations of Lyα emission, we find that in detail there are important discrepancies between the models and data, as well as problems with applying the framework of an expanding thin shell of gas to explain high-redshift galaxy spectra. Our data highlight these inconsistencies, as well as illuminating critical elements for success in future models of outflow and infall in high-redshift galaxies
    corecore