506 research outputs found

    Expressing the tacit knowledge of a digital library system as linked data

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    Library organizations have enthusiastically undertaken semantic web initiatives and in particular the data publishing as linked data. Nevertheless, different surveys report the experimental nature of initiatives and the consumer difficulty in re-using data. These barriers are a hindrance for using linked datasets, as an infrastructure that enhances the library and related information services. This paper presents an approach for encoding, as a Linked Vocabulary, the "tacit" knowledge of the information system that manages the data source. The objective is the improvement of the interpretation process of the linked data meaning of published datasets. We analyzed a digital library system, as a case study, for prototyping the "semantic data management" method, where data and its knowledge are natively managed, taking into account the linked data pillars. The ultimate objective of the semantic data management is to curate the correct consumers' interpretation of data, and to facilitate the proper re-use. The prototype defines the ontological entities representing the knowledge, of the digital library system, that is not stored in the data source, nor in the existing ontologies related to the system's semantics. Thus we present the local ontology and its matching with existing ontologies, Preservation Metadata Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) and Metadata Objects Description Schema (MODS), and we discuss linked data triples prototyped from the legacy relational database, by using the local ontology. We show how the semantic data management, can deal with the inconsistency of system data, and we conclude that a specific change in the system developer mindset, it is necessary for extracting and "codifying" the tacit knowledge, which is necessary to improve the data interpretation process

    Adaptive Load Balancing: A Study in Multi-Agent Learning

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    We study the process of multi-agent reinforcement learning in the context of load balancing in a distributed system, without use of either central coordination or explicit communication. We first define a precise framework in which to study adaptive load balancing, important features of which are its stochastic nature and the purely local information available to individual agents. Given this framework, we show illuminating results on the interplay between basic adaptive behavior parameters and their effect on system efficiency. We then investigate the properties of adaptive load balancing in heterogeneous populations, and address the issue of exploration vs. exploitation in that context. Finally, we show that naive use of communication may not improve, and might even harm system efficiency.Comment: See http://www.jair.org/ for any accompanying file

    Decidable Reasoning in Terminological Knowledge Representation Systems

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    Terminological knowledge representation systems (TKRSs) are tools for designing and using knowledge bases that make use of terminological languages (or concept languages). We analyze from a theoretical point of view a TKRS whose capabilities go beyond the ones of presently available TKRSs. The new features studied, often required in practical applications, can be summarized in three main points. First, we consider a highly expressive terminological language, called ALCNR, including general complements of concepts, number restrictions and role conjunction. Second, we allow to express inclusion statements between general concepts, and terminological cycles as a particular case. Third, we prove the decidability of a number of desirable TKRS-deduction services (like satisfiability, subsumption and instance checking) through a sound, complete and terminating calculus for reasoning in ALCNR-knowledge bases. Our calculus extends the general technique of constraint systems. As a byproduct of the proof, we get also the result that inclusion statements in ALCNR can be simulated by terminological cycles, if descriptive semantics is adopted.Comment: See http://www.jair.org/ for any accompanying file

    Scheduling sport tournaments using constraint logic programming

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    We tackle the problem of scheduling the matches of a round robin tournament for a sport league. We formally define the problem, state its computational complexity, and present a solution algorithm using a two-step approach. The first step is the creation of a tournament pattern and is based on known graph-theoretic results. The second one is a constraint-based depth-first branch and bound procedure that assigns actual teams to numbers in the pattern. The procedure is implemented using the finite domain library of the constraint logic programming language eclipse. Experimental results show that, in practical cases, the optimal solution can be found in reasonable time, despite the fact that the problem is NP-complete

    Are Italian research assessment exercises size-biased?

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    Research assessment exercises have enjoyed ever-increasing popularity in many countries in recent years, both as a method to guide public funds allocation and as a validation tool for adopted research support policies. Italy’s most recently completed evaluation effort (VQR 2011–14) required each university to submit to the Ministry for Education, University, and Research (MIUR) 2 research products per author (3 in the case of other research institutions), chosen in such a way that the same product is not assigned to two authors belonging to the same institution. This constraint suggests that larger institutions, where collaborations among colleagues may be more frequent, could suffer a size-related bias in their evaluation scores. To validate our claim, we investigate the outcome of artificially splitting Sapienza University of Rome, one of the largest universities in Europe, in a number of separate partitions, according to several criteria, noting significant score increases for several partitioning scenarios

    Which Conference Is That? A Case Study in Computer Science

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    Conferences play a major role in some disciplines such as computer science and are often used in research quality evaluation exercises. Differently from journals and books, for which ISSN and ISBN codes provide unambiguous keys, recognizing the conference series in which a paper was published is a rather complex endeavor: There is no unique code assigned to conferences, and the way their names are written may greatly vary across years and catalogs. In this article, we propose a technique for the entity resolution of conferences based on the analysis of different semantic parts of their names. We present the results of an investigation of our technique on a dataset of 42,395 distinct computer science conference names excerpted from the DBLP computer science repository,1 which we automatically link to different authority files. With suitable data cleaning, the precision of our record linkage algorithm can be as high as 94%. A comparison with results obtainable using state-of-the-art general-purpose record linkage algorithms rounds off the article, showing that our ad hoc solution largely outperforms them in terms of the quality of the results

    Neural Structures within Human Meniscofemoral Ligaments: A Cadaveric Study.

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    Aim. To investigate the existence of neural structures within the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) of the human knee. Methods. The MFLs from 8 human cadaveric knees were harvested. 5 μm sections were H&E-stained and examined under light microscopy. The harvested ligaments were then stained using an S100 monoclonal antibody utilising the ABC technique to detect neural components. Further examination was performed on 60–80 nm sections under electron microscopy. Results. Of the 8 knees, 6 were suitable for examination. From these both MFLs existed in 3, only anterior MFLs were present in 2, and an isolated posterior MFL existed in 1. Out of the 9 MFLs, 4 demonstrated neural structures on light and electron microscopy and this was confirmed with S100 staining. The ultrastructure of these neural components was morphologically similar to mechanoreceptors. Conclusion. Neural structures are present in MFLs near to their meniscal attachments. It is likely that the meniscofemoral ligaments contribute not only as passive secondary restraints to posterior draw but more importantly to proprioception and may therefore play an active role in providing a neurosensory feedback loop. This may be particularly important when the primary restraint has reduced function as in the posterior cruciate ligament—deficient human knee

    Compilability of Abduction

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    Abduction is one of the most important forms of reasoning; it has been successfully applied to several practical problems such as diagnosis. In this paper we investigate whether the computational complexity of abduction can be reduced by an appropriate use of preprocessing. This is motivated by the fact that part of the data of the problem (namely, the set of all possible assumptions and the theory relating assumptions and manifestations) are often known before the rest of the problem. In this paper, we show some complexity results about abduction when compilation is allowed

    The GRAAL high resolution BGO calorimeter and its energy calibration and monitoring system

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    We describe the electromagnetic calorimeter built for the GRAAL apparatus at the ESRF. Its monitoring system is presented in detail. Results from tests and the performance obtained during the first GRAAL experiments are given. The energy calibration accuracy and stability reached is a small fraction of the intrinsic detector resolution.Comment: 19 pages, 14 figures, submitted to Nuclear Instruments and Method

    Vector bundles on the projective line and finite domination of chain complexes

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    Finitely dominated chain complexes over a Laurent polynomial ring in one indeterminate are characterised by vanishing of their Novikov homology. We present an algebro-geometric approach to this result, based on extension of chain complexes to sheaves on the projective line. We also discuss the K-theoretical obstruction to extension.Comment: v1: 11 page
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