14 research outputs found

    The study of the influence of plant additives on increasing the food and biological value of soft waffles

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    Currently there is an acute shortage of fibres and proteins in the human diet, resulting in various diseases. The modern market needs a product capable of diversifying the range in the sector of functional, dietary flour confectionery. To this end, the article shows one of the ways to improve the macronutrient composition of waffles, especially with regard to the protein-carbohydrate component of the product. Laboratory analysis showed that the introduction of pea protein, chicory root syrup and apple fiber into the composition of flour and confectionery increased protein content by 3.3% in wafers made of rice flour only and by 5.6% in waffles made of a mixture of whole grains and rice flour. The amount of sucrose decreased in «Rice» waffles by 2.6% and by 2.3% in «Wheat-rice» waffles, and the amount of fiber on average is 3-4 times more, compared to the control sample. In comparison with the control sample, increased the average number of essential amino acids such as: lysine – in 1.5 times; phenylalanine – in 1.25 times; leucine and isoleucine – in 0.8 times; methionine – in 1.5 times, threonine – in 3 times. Thus, the study resulted in the development of dietary plant based soft waffles with improved macronutrient composition, able to expand the range of functional products and can be recommended for dietary nutrition

    CROP WILD RELATIVES IN THE NORTHWESTERN BAIKAL REGION (ACCORDING TO THE MATERIALS OF THE 2014 COLLECTING MISSION)

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    The explorations carried out by a collecting team over the territory of the northwestern Baikal region made it possible to study the diversity of crop wild relatives (CWR) in 37 natural habitats in Bayandayevsky, Kachugsky, Zhigalovsky, Kazachensky-Lensky, Olkhonsky and Ekhirit-Bulagatsky districts of Irkutsk Province and the North Baikal district of the Republic of Buryatia. As a result, the areas richest in CWR species diversity were identified. Herbarium specimens and 102 seed and layering samples of 56 species from 23 genera representing wild relatives of fodder, legume, fruit, cereal and fiber crops were collected, including endemics listed in the Red Data Books of the Russian Federation, Irkutsk Province and the Republic of Buryatia

    POLYMORPHISM OF SOME SPECIES FROM THE TRIBE <i> VICIEAE </i> BRONN (FABACEAE LINDL.) ACCORDING TO THE DATA OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS

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    Morphological, karyological and molecular genetic analyses of the accessions of Vicia unijuga A. Br. s. 1 (V. unijuga A. Br., V. ohwiana Hosok.) from the tribe Vicieae Bronn. have been performed. Samples were collected during expeditions in the Russian Far East, Siberia and China. The results of factor and discriminant analysis revealed as important morphological characters for the classification of inter- and intraspecific diversity: peduncle length, leaf length, stipule shape, bean length, and the number of internodes on the main stem. The cytotypes 2n = 12, 2n = 24 at V. unijuga and V. ohwiana Hosok. were found to occur almost over the entire territory of their areas of distribution. 2n = 12 is not species-specific characteristics for V. ohwiana. The ITS, SSR and ISSR marker analyses revealed a significant taxonomic proximity of V. unijuga and V. ohwiana with the species V. baicalensis (Turcz.) B. Fedtsch., V. ramuliflora (Maxim.) Ohwi and V. venosa (Willd. ex Link) Maksim. The complex species V. unijuga s. 1 is a genetically heterogeneous group. Some populations localized on the islands and the coast of the Sea of Japan need to be classified into independent taxa of a higher rank

    Phenotypic diversity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) landraces accumulated in the Vavilov collection from the centers of the crop origin

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    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second grain legume for the area of cultivation in the world, and the third for the production. However, modern cultivars of chickpea are typically susceptible to a variety of diseases, and have modest drought tolerance. The improvement of the crop for adaptability сould be carried out via introgression of valuable traits genes from old landraces collected in the centers of chickpea origin and diversity: the primary – Turkey and secondary – Ethiopia. The N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (thereafter VIR) preserves 3380 chickpea accessions, with landraces representing over a half of them. Here, the results of analysis of variability of 11 biological, morphological and economic-valuable traits in 1082 chickpea landraces descended from 60 countries are briefly driven. More in detail the sample of 75 landraces from Turkey and 24 landraces from Ethiopia (centres of chickpea origin) which had been sampled there 90 years ago have been studied. We analyzed the phenotypic variability with a treatment of 15 traits. The traits were studied using component analyses. Geographic regularities of certain traits in the studied accessions have been revealed. Ethiopian landraces are relatively homogeneous, belonging mostly to desi-type, and having fewer small, dark, and angular seeds, a short maturation period. They belong to the Abyssinian eco-geographical group, absolutely unique and endemic to Ethiopia. Turkish landraces are characterized by much higher diversity for the majority of phenotypes, covering almost the entire range of traits specified in chickpea descriptors. In this region, together with landraces typical for Turkey, there are those from the western Mediterranean and from the areas bordering with Turkey to the east. Landraces from primary and secondary centers of origin differed on the range of variability of the traits studied. The smaller degree of variation and primitiveness of the most traits and lower seed productivity in Ethiopian landraces in comparison with Turkish ones indicates a greater breeding advancement of the latter. Useful traits for breeding are present in the landraces from both centers of origin and diversity

    Оценка влияния гидродинамической кавитационной обработки темных нефтепродуктов на выход фракций, выкипающих до 400 °С

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    Objectives. The reduction of the anthropogenic burden on the environment is generally associated with the transition to alternative energy sources. However, some of these have only regional significance, while the effectiveness of others remains doubtful. On this point, innovative processes aimed at increasing the depth of oil refining may be equally important for reducing the carbon footprint. Wave-based technologies such as cavitation may also be included in these processes. Among the various methods for inducing such cavitation phenomena in oil refining, hydrodynamic approaches are especially promising. It has been shown that the treatment effectiveness increases with greater pressure or when augmenting the number of cavitation processing cycles. The aim of this work is to identify the factor (i.e., pressure gradient or number of treatment cycles) having the greatest influence on the change of the characteristics of the oil product.Methods. Cavitation phenomena were created by pumping dark oil products through a diffuser. The pressure gradient ranged from 20 to 50 MPa, while the number of cavitation processing cycles varied from 1 to 10. The influence of cavitation conditions on the change of fractional composition of petroleum products was analyzed. Target fractions are those having a boiling point up to 400°C.Results. It is shown that increased pressure generated in the diffuser leads to a linear increase in the yield of desired cuts. The dependence of the yield of these fractions on the number of processing cycles is described by the growth model with saturation. A proposed equation describes the influence of pressure and number of cycles on the yield of the fractions from initial boiling point temperature (TIBP) to 400°C following cavitation processing of dark oil products. Some of the coefficients of this equation have been associated with the physicochemical characteristics of the feedstock.Conclusions. An equation for predicting the maximum possible yield of the TJBP-400°C fraction as a result of cavitation processing under different conditions of the process is proposed according to the physicochemical characteristics of the feedstock. The prediction error did not exceed 12%. The equation analysis and comparison of energy consumption between different process regimes shows that a higher yield of the target product is achieved by increasing pressure gradient rather than the number of processing cycles.Цели. Снижение антропогенной нагрузки человечества на окружающую среду связывают с использованием альтернативных источников энергии. Однако часть из них имеет только региональное значение, а эффективность других дискуссионна. Для сокращения углеродного следа не меньший интерес представляют инновационные процессы, направленные на увеличение глубины переработки нефти. К числу таких процессов можно отнести и волновые технологии, частным случаем которых является кавитация. Кавитационные явления для нефтепереработки создают различными методами, наиболее перспективным из которых считаются гидродинамические. Установлено, что эффективность воздействия возрастает как при повышении давления при прокачке нефтепродукта, так и при увеличении количества актов воздействия. Цель данной работы - какой из двух факторов - градиент давлений или количество циклов воздействия - оказывает большее влияние на изменение характеристик нефтепродукта.Методы. Явление кавитации создавали, прокачивая темные нефтепродукты через диффузор. Давление варьировалось от 20 до 50 МПа, а количество актов воздействия - от 1 до 10. Анализировалось влияние условий кавитации на изменение фракционного состава нефтепродуктов. В качестве целевых рассматривались фракции, выкипающие до 400 °C.Результаты. Показано, что выход целевых фракций линейно увеличивается при повышении давления, возникающего в диффузоре. Зависимость выхода этих фракций от количества циклов обработки описывается моделью роста с насыщением. Предложено уравнение, описывающее влияние давления и количества циклов на выход фракции от температуры начала кипения (ТНК) до 400 °С после кавитационной обработки темных нефтепродуктов. Установлена связь некоторых из коэффициентов этого уравнения с физико-химическими характеристиками исходного сырья.Выводы. Предложено уравнение, позволяющее по физико-химическим характеристикам исходного сырья предсказать максимально возможный выход фракции ТНК-400 °С в результате кавитационной обработки при различных условиях ведения процесса. Ошибка прогнозирования не превышает 12%. Анализ полученного уравнения и сопоставление энергозатрат при различных режимах ведения процесса показывают, что больший выход целевого продукта достигается в результате увеличения давления, а не числа циклов обработки

    Функциональное моделирование управления синтезом углеродных нановолокон

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    We discover and formalize the relations between set properties of the material and its synthesis conditions. We provide a formal description of carbon nanotubes synthesis control by means of functional modeling. The result is the hierarchical structure visual description that is the set of related diagrams. The diagrams describe the technological and control processes of carbon nanotubes synthesis and its relations including feedbacks.Представлены взаимосвязи между направлениями использования, свойствами углеродных нановолокон и условиями их синтеза. Приведены результаты функционального моделирования технологических процессов и процессов управления синтезом углеродных нановолокон

    ИСХОДНЫЙ МАТЕРИАЛ ДЛЯ СЕЛЕКЦИИ ОВОЩНЫХ БОБОВЫХ КУЛЬТУР В КОЛЛЕКЦИИ ВИР

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    In the VIR collection there is a rich initial material, which can contribute to the intensification of breeding of leguminous of vegetable directions of our country, as well as an increase in speciesdiversity of cultures in this group.В коллекции ВИР имеется богатый исходный материал, который может способствовать интенсификации селекции зернобобовых культур овощного направления использования в нашей стране, а также увеличению видового разнообразия культур  этой группы

    Functional modeling of carbon nanotubes synthesis control

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    We discover and formalize the relations between set properties of the material and its synthesis conditions. We provide a formal description of carbon nanotubes synthesis control by means of functional modeling. The result is the hierarchical structure visual description that is the set of related diagrams. The diagrams describe the technological and control processes of carbon nanotubes synthesis and its relations including feedbacks

    THE INITIAL MATERIAL FOR GRAIN LEGUMES BREEDING IN THE COLLECTION OF VIR

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    In the VIR collection there is a rich initial material, which can contribute to the intensification of breeding of leguminous of vegetable directions of our country, as well as an increase in speciesdiversity of cultures in this group

    Identification and Spatial Distribution of Bioactive Compounds in Seeds Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. by Laser Microscopy and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

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    The research presents a comparative metabolomic study of extracts of Vigna unguiculata seed samples from the collection of the N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources. Analyzed samples related to different areas of use in agricultural production, belonging to different cultivar groups sesquipedalis (vegetable accessions) and unguiculata (grain accessions). Metabolome analysis was performed by liquid chromatography combined with ion trap mass spectrometry. Substances were localized in seeds using confocal and laser microscopy. As a result, 49 bioactive compounds were identified: flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidin, phenolic acids, amino acids, monocarboxylic acids, aminobenzoic acids, fatty acids, lignans, carotenoid, sapogenins, steroids, etc. Steroidal alkaloids were identified in V. unguiculata seeds for the first time. The seed coat (palisade epidermis and parenchyma) is the richest in phenolic compounds. Comparison of seeds of varieties of different directions of use in terms of the number of bioactive substances identified revealed a significant superiority of vegetable accessions over grain ones in this indicator, 36 compounds were found in samples from cultivar group sesquipedalis, and 24 in unguiculata. The greatest variety of bioactive compounds was found in the vegetable accession k-640 from China
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