37,165 research outputs found

    Universality in survivor distributions: Characterising the winners of competitive dynamics

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    We investigate the survivor distributions of a spatially extended model of competitive dynamics in different geometries. The model consists of a deterministic dynamical system of individual agents at specified nodes, which might or might not survive the predatory dynamics: all stochasticity is brought in by the initial state. Every such initial state leads to a unique and extended pattern of survivors and non-survivors, which is known as an attractor of the dynamics. We show that the number of such attractors grows exponentially with system size, so that their exact characterisation is limited to only very small systems. Given this, we construct an analytical approach based on inhomogeneous mean-field theory to calculate survival probabilities for arbitrary networks. This powerful (albeit approximate) approach shows how universality arises in survivor distributions via a key concept -- the {\it dynamical fugacity}. Remarkably, in the large-mass limit, the survival probability of a node becomes independent of network geometry, and assumes a simple form which depends only on its mass and degree.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures, 2 table

    Slow synaptic dynamics in a network: from exponential to power-law forgetting

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    We investigate a mean-field model of interacting synapses on a directed neural network. Our interest lies in the slow adaptive dynamics of synapses, which are driven by the fast dynamics of the neurons they connect. Cooperation is modelled from the usual Hebbian perspective, while competition is modelled by an original polarity-driven rule. The emergence of a critical manifold culminating in a tricritical point is crucially dependent on the presence of synaptic competition. This leads to a universal 1/t1/t power-law relaxation of the mean synaptic strength along the critical manifold and an equally universal 1/t1/\sqrt{t} relaxation at the tricritical point, to be contrasted with the exponential relaxation that is otherwise generic. In turn, this leads to the natural emergence of long- and short-term memory from different parts of parameter space in a synaptic network, which is the most novel and important result of our present investigations.Comment: 12 pages, 8 figures. Phys. Rev. E (2014) to appea

    A two-species model of a two-dimensional sandpile surface: a case of asymptotic roughening

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    We present and analyze a model of an evolving sandpile surface in (2 + 1) dimensions where the dynamics of mobile grains ({\rho}(x, t)) and immobile clusters (h(x, t)) are coupled. Our coupling models the situation where the sandpile is flat on average, so that there is no bias due to gravity. We find anomalous scaling: the expected logarithmic smoothing at short length and time scales gives way to roughening in the asymptotic limit, where novel and non-trivial exponents are found.Comment: 7 Pages, 6 Figures; Granular Matter, 2012 (Online

    Glassy dynamics in granular compaction

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    Two models are presented to study the influence of slow dynamics on granular compaction. It is found in both cases that high values of packing fraction are achieved only by the slow relaxation of cooperative structures. Ongoing work to study the full implications of these results is discussed.Comment: 12 pages, 9 figures; accepted in J. Phys: Condensed Matter, proceedings of the Trieste workshop on 'Unifying concepts in glass physics

    Competition and cooperation:aspects of dynamics in sandpiles

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    In this article, we review some of our approaches to granular dynamics, now well known to consist of both fast and slow relaxational processes. In the first case, grains typically compete with each other, while in the second, they cooperate. A typical result of {\it cooperation} is the formation of stable bridges, signatures of spatiotemporal inhomogeneities; we review their geometrical characteristics and compare theoretical results with those of independent simulations. {\it Cooperative} excitations due to local density fluctuations are also responsible for relaxation at the angle of repose; the {\it competition} between these fluctuations and external driving forces, can, on the other hand, result in a (rare) collapse of the sandpile to the horizontal. Both these features are present in a theory reviewed here. An arena where the effects of cooperation versus competition are felt most keenly is granular compaction; we review here a random graph model, where three-spin interactions are used to model compaction under tapping. The compaction curve shows distinct regions where 'fast' and 'slow' dynamics apply, separated by what we have called the {\it single-particle relaxation threshold}. In the final section of this paper, we explore the effect of shape -- jagged vs. regular -- on the compaction of packings near their jamming limit. One of our major results is an entropic landscape that, while microscopically rough, manifests {\it Edwards' flatness} at a macroscopic level. Another major result is that of surface intermittency under low-intensity shaking.Comment: 36 pages, 23 figures, minor correction
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