4,633 research outputs found

    Life events, difficulties and dilemmas in the onset of chronic fatigue syndrome: a case-control study

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    Background. The role of stress in the onset of chronic fatigue syndrome is unclear. Our objectives in this study were first, to determine the relation between the onset of chronic fatigue syndrome and stressful life events and difficulties. Secondly, we examined the role of a particular type of problem, dilemmas, in the onset of chronic fatigue syndrome. Method. We used a case鈥揷ontrol design with 64 consecutive referrals from an Infectious Diseases/Liaison Psychiatry Fatigue clinic and 64 age- and sex-matched controls from a general practice population control group in Leeds. We had two main outcome measures; the odds ratios of the risk of developing chronic fatigue syndrome after experiencing a severe life event, severe difficulties or both in the year and 3 months preceding onset; and the proportion of subjects in each group who experienced a dilemma prior to onset. Results. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome were more likely to experience severe events and difficulties in the 3 months (OR=9, 95% CI 3路2 to 25路1) and year (OR=4路3, 95% CI 1路8 to 10路2) prior to onset of their illness than population controls. In the 3 months prior to onset 19 of the 64 patients (30%) experienced a dilemma compared to none of the controls. Conclusions. Chronic fatigue syndrome is associated with stressful events and difficulties prior to onset. Those events and difficulties characterized as being dilemmas seem to be particularly important

    The allocation of fishing rights in UK fisheries

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    Tensor models and embedded Riemann surfaces

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    Tensor models and, more generally, group field theories are candidates for higher-dimensional quantum gravity, just as matrix models are in the 2d setting. With the recent advent of a 1/N-expansion for coloured tensor models, more focus has been given to the study of the topological aspects of their Feynman graphs. Crucial to the aforementioned analysis were certain subgraphs known as bubbles and jackets. We demonstrate in the 3d case that these graphs are generated by matrix models embedded inside the tensor theory. Moreover, we show that the jacket graphs represent (Heegaard) splitting surfaces for the triangulation dual to the Feynman graph. With this in hand, we are able to re-express the Boulatov model as a quantum field theory on these Riemann surfaces.Comment: 9 pages, 7 fi

    The impact of a vertically transmitted microsporidian, Nosema granulosis on the fitness of its Gammarus duebeni host under stressful environmental conditions

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    Although purely vertically transmitted parasites are predicted to cause low pathogenicity in their hosts, the effects of such parasites on host fitness under stressful environmental conditions have not previously been assessed. Here, we investigate the effects of Nosema granulosis, a vertically transmitted, microsporidian parasite of the brackish water amphipod Gammarus duebeni, on host growth and survival under conditions of host鈥揾ost competition and limited food. The parasite had no effect on host survival, but caused a reduction in juvenile growth. Stressful environmental conditions also led to a reduction in G. duebeni growth. However, we found no evidence to support the prediction that parasitized hosts would suffer a greater reduction in fitness than uninfected hosts under adverse environmental conditions. We interpret our results in the context of selection for successful vertical parasite transmission

    Homological Product Codes

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    Quantum codes with low-weight stabilizers known as LDPC codes have been actively studied recently due to their simple syndrome readout circuits and potential applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing. However, all families of quantum LDPC codes known to this date suffer from a poor distance scaling limited by the square-root of the code length. This is in a sharp contrast with the classical case where good families of LDPC codes are known that combine constant encoding rate and linear distance. Here we propose the first family of good quantum codes with low-weight stabilizers. The new codes have a constant encoding rate, linear distance, and stabilizers acting on at most n\sqrt{n} qubits, where nn is the code length. For comparison, all previously known families of good quantum codes have stabilizers of linear weight. Our proof combines two techniques: randomized constructions of good quantum codes and the homological product operation from algebraic topology. We conjecture that similar methods can produce good stabilizer codes with stabilizer weight nan^a for any a>0a>0. Finally, we apply the homological product to construct new small codes with low-weight stabilizers.Comment: 49 page

    Minimal kernels of Dirac operators along maps

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    Let MM be a closed spin manifold and let NN be a closed manifold. For maps f鈥夆仯:MNf\colon M\to N and Riemannian metrics gg on MM and hh on NN, we consider the Dirac operator Dg,hfD^f_{g,h} of the twisted Dirac bundle MRfTN\Sigma M\otimes_{\mathbb{R}} f^*TN. To this Dirac operator one can associate an index in KOdim(M)(pt)KO^{-dim(M)}(pt). If MM is 22-dimensional, one gets a lower bound for the dimension of the kernel of Dg,hfD^f_{g,h} out of this index. We investigate the question whether this lower bound is obtained for generic tupels (f,g,h)(f,g,h)

    The public role of professionals: Developing and evaluating the civic-minded professional scale

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    Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)This research provided understanding of the concept civic-minded professional. A civic-minded professional is one who is(a)skillfully trained through formal education, with (b) the ethical disposition as a social trustee of knowledge, and (c) the capacity to work with others in a democratic way, (d) to achieve public goods. Forty-four items were developed for the Civic-Minded Professional scale based on a multi-disciplinary literature review. The scale was part of an online survey distributed to a national sample of faculty in higher education (n=373)to evaluate the reliability (alpha = .95) and validity of the scale. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the scale to thirty-two item and five factors (i.e., voluntary action, citizenship, social trustee, identity and calling, consensus building)

    Assessing Civic Knowledge and Engagement

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    Civic engagement of college students is readily endorsed as an aspiration in higher education; however, defining and assessing civic learning outcomes is challenging. This chapter brings clarity to the knowledge, skills, and dispositions of civic-minded graduates and offers advice on program development and assessment strategies to reach civic outcomes
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