387 research outputs found

    Representation Theorems for Indefinite Quadratic Forms Revisited

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    The first and second representation theorems for sign-indefinite, not necessarily semi-bounded quadratic forms are revisited. New straightforward proofs of these theorems are given. A number of necessary and sufficient conditions ensuring the second representation theorem to hold is proved. A new simple and explicit example of a self-adjoint operator for which the second representation theorem does not hold is also provided.Comment: This work is supported in part by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaf

    A functional model, eigenvalues, and finite singular critical points for indefinite Sturm-Liouville operators

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    Eigenvalues in the essential spectrum of a weighted Sturm-Liouville operator are studied under the assumption that the weight function has one turning point. An abstract approach to the problem is given via a functional model for indefinite Sturm-Liouville operators. Algebraic multiplicities of eigenvalues are obtained. Also, operators with finite singular critical points are considered.Comment: 38 pages, Proposition 2.2 and its proof corrected, Remarks 2.5, 3.4, and 3.12 extended, details added in subsections 2.3 and 4.2, section 6 rearranged, typos corrected, references adde

    The cholesterol-lowering effect of oats and oat beta glucan: modes of action and potential role of bile acids and the microbiome

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    Consumption of sufficient quantities of oat products has been shown to reduce host cholesterol and thereby modulate cardiovascular disease risk. The effects are proposed to be mediated by the gel-forming properties of oat β-glucan which modulates host bile acid and cholesterol metabolism and potentially removes intestinal cholesterol for excretion. However, the gut microbiota has emerged as a major factor regulating cholesterol metabolism in the host. Oat β-glucan has been shown to modulate the gut microbiota, particularly those bacterial species that influence host bile acid metabolism and production of short chain fatty acids, factors which are regulators of host cholesterol homeostasis. Given a significant role for the gut microbiota in cholesterol metabolism it is likely that the effects of oat β-glucan on the host are multifaceted and involve regulation of microbe-host interactions at the gut interface. Here we consider the potential for oat β-glucan to influence microbial populations in the gut with potential consequences for bile acid metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, bacterial metabolism of cholesterol and microbe-host signaling

    Auswirkungen dynamischer Lasteinträge landwirtschaftlicher Radfahrzeuge auf die physikalischen Eigenschaften von Lößböden

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    Im Rahmen eines vom Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV) geförderten Verbundprojektes wurde in Zusammenarbeit des Institutes für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde der CAU zu Kiel und der landtechnischen Abteilung der Fachhochschule Südwestfalen auf zwei Versuchsflächen in Nordrheinwestfalen Spannungsausbreitung und Deformation unterschiedlich bearbeiteter Ackerböden unter definierten Belastungssituationen (Radlasten 3,3, 6,3 und 7,5Mg) untersucht. Ziel der gemeinsamen Experimente war die flächenhafte Bestimmung der Bodenstabilität und der Bodenfunktionen, sowie deren Beeinflussung durch technogene Belastung landwirtschaftlicher Radfahrzeuge. In Kombination von Beprobungen, bodenphysikalischen Laboruntersuchungen und dynamischen Belastungsversuchen im Freiland, war es möglich für die unterschiedlichen Bodenbearbeitungssysteme (konventionell wendend zu Mulch- bzw. Frässohlensaat) definierte Basisstabilitäten zu ermitteln und diese den gemessenen Spannungseinträgen bewertend gegenüber zu stellen. Anhand auflastabhängiger Vergleiche ausgewählter Bodenfunktionskennwerte (kf, Pv, LK) konnte eine Einordnung des Gefährdungspotentials definierter Lastsituationen für das Bodenausgangssubstrat Lösslehm erfolgen. Die Ergebnisse der Überfahrungsexperimente zeigen hinsichtlich der gemessenen Spannungseinträge eine auflastabhängige bodenschonende Wirkungen der konservierenden Bodenbearbeitung. Für Radlasten über 3,3Mg wurde in der horizontspezifischen Gegenüberstellung der Bodenstabilität und des Spannungseintrages, trotz bodenschonender Maßnahmen, eine Verdichtungsgefährdung für den Unterboden ermittelt. Die Untersuchungen der Bodenfunktionskennwerte weisen unter mechanischer Belastung einen signifikanten Anstieg der Vorbelastung sowie Abnahmen der Luftkapazität und eine Beeinträchtigung der hydraulischen Leitfähigkeit auf. Mehrfach wiederholte Lasteinträge bzw. zunehmende Überfahrungshäufigkeit zeigten eine weitaus deutlichere negative Beeinflussung der Bodenfunktion als einmalige Überfahrten

    Abstract kinetic equations with positive collision operators

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    We consider "forward-backward" parabolic equations in the abstract form Jdψ/dx+Lψ=0Jd \psi / d x + L \psi = 0, 0<x<τ 0< x < \tau \leq \infty, where JJ and LL are operators in a Hilbert space HH such that J=J=J1J=J^*=J^{-1}, L=L0L=L^* \geq 0, and kerL=0\ker L = 0. The following theorem is proved: if the operator B=JLB=JL is similar to a self-adjoint operator, then associated half-range boundary problems have unique solutions. We apply this theorem to corresponding nonhomogeneous equations, to the time-independent Fokker-Plank equation μψx(x,μ)=b(μ)2ψμ2(x,μ) \mu \frac {\partial \psi}{\partial x} (x,\mu) = b(\mu) \frac {\partial^2 \psi}{\partial \mu^2} (x, \mu), 0<x<τ 0<x<\tau, μR \mu \in \R, as well as to other parabolic equations of the "forward-backward" type. The abstract kinetic equation Tdψ/dx=Aψ(x)+f(x) T d \psi/dx = - A \psi (x) + f(x), where T=TT=T^* is injective and AA satisfies a certain positivity assumption, is considered also.Comment: 20 pages, LaTeX2e, version 2, references have been added, changes in the introductio

    C/EBPβ regulates homeostatic and oncogenic gastric cell proliferation

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    Cancer of the stomach is among the leading causes of death from cancer worldwide. The transcription factor C/EBPβ is frequently overexpressed in gastric cancer and associated with the suppression of the differentiation marker TFF1. We show that the murine C/EBP{beta} knockout stomach displays unbalanced homeostasis and reduced cell proliferation and that tumorigenesis of human gastric cancer xenograft is inhibited by knockdown of C/EBPβ. Cross-species comparison of gene expression profiles between C/EBPβ-deficient murine stomach and human gastric cancer revealed a subset of tumors with a C/EBPβ signature. Within this signature, the RUNX1t1 tumor suppressor transcript was down-regulated in 38% of gastric tumor samples. The RUNX1t1 promoter was frequently hypermethylated and ectopic expression of RUNX1t1 in gastric cancer cells inhibited proliferation and enhanced TFF1 expression. These data suggest that the tumor suppressor activity of both RUNX1t1 and TFF1 are mechanistically connected to C/EBPβ and that cross-regulation between C/EBPβ-RUNX1t1-TFF1 plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis

    Five years MIQE guidelines: The case of the Arabian countries

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    The quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become a key molecular enabling technology with an immense range of research, clinical, forensic as well as diagnostic applications. Its relatively moderate instrumentation and reagent requirements have led to its adoption by numerous laboratories, including those located in the Arabian world, where qPCR, which targets DNA, and reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR), which targets RNA, are widely used for region-specific biotechnology, agricultural and human genetic studies. However, it has become increasingly apparent that there are significant problems with both the quality of qPCR-based data as well as the transparency of reporting. This realisation led to the publication of the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines in 2009 and their more widespread adoption in the last couple of years. An analysis of the performance of biomedical research in the Arabian world between 2001-2005 suggests that the Arabian world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Hence we have analysed specifically the quality of RT-qPCR-based peer-reviewed papers published since 2009 from Arabian researchers using a bespoke iOS/Android app developed by one of the authors. Our results show that compliance with 15 essential MIQE criteria was low (median of 40%, range 0-93%) and few details on RNA quality controls (22% compliance), assays design (12%), RT strategies (32%), amplification efficiencies (30%) and the normalisation process (3%). These data indicate that one of the reasons for the poor performance of Arabian world biomedical research may be the low standard of any supporting qPCR experiments and identify which aspects of qPCR experiments require significant improvements

    Amplification efficiency: linking baseline and bias in the analysis of quantitative PCR data

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    Despite the central role of quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the quantification of mRNA transcripts, most analyses of qPCR data are still delegated to the software that comes with the qPCR apparatus. This is especially true for the handling of the fluorescence baseline. This article shows that baseline estimation errors are directly reflected in the observed PCR efficiency values and are thus propagated exponentially in the estimated starting concentrations as well as ‘fold-difference’ results. Because of the unknown origin and kinetics of the baseline fluorescence, the fluorescence values monitored in the initial cycles of the PCR reaction cannot be used to estimate a useful baseline value. An algorithm that estimates the baseline by reconstructing the log-linear phase downward from the early plateau phase of the PCR reaction was developed and shown to lead to very reproducible PCR efficiency values. PCR efficiency values were determined per sample by fitting a regression line to a subset of data points in the log-linear phase. The variability, as well as the bias, in qPCR results was significantly reduced when the mean of these PCR efficiencies per amplicon was used in the calculation of an estimate of the starting concentration per sample

    Imatinib Treatment Induces CD5+ B Lymphocytes and IgM Natural Antibodies with Anti-Leukemic Reactivity in Patients with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

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    Imatinib mesylate is a first line treatment of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia and of a rare form of gastrointestinal stromal cancer, where the response to the drug is also linked to the immune system activation with production of antineoplastic cytokines. In this study, forty patients in the chronic phase of disease, treated with imatinib mesylate, were analyzed. Bone marrow aspirates were drawn at diagnosis, after 3, 6, 12, 18 months for haematological, cytofluorimetric, cytogenetic, biomolecular evaluation and cytokine measurement. Responder and non responder patients were defined according to the European LeukemiaNet recommendations. In responder patients (n = 32), the percentage of bone marrow CD20+CD5+sIgM+ lymphocytes, and the plasma levels of IgM, were significantly higher, at 3 months and up to 9 months, than in non responders. These IgM reacted with O-linked sugars expressed by leukemic cells and could induce tumor cell apoptosis. In responeìder patients the stromal-derived factor-1 and the B-lymphocyte-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family significantly raised in the bone marrow after imatinib administration, together with the bone morphogenetic proteins-2 and −7. All patients with high number of CD20+CD5+sIgM+ cells and high stromal-derived factor-1 and B lymphocyte activating factor levels, underwent complete cytogenetic and/or molecular remission by 12 months. We propose that CD20+CD5+sIgM+ lymphocytes producing anti-carbohydrate antibodies with anti-tumor activity, might contribute to the response to imatinib treatment. As in multivariate analysis bone marrow CD20+CD5+sIgM+ cells and stromal-derived factor-1 and B-lymphocyte-activating factor levels were significantly related to cytogenetical and molecular changes, they might contribute to the definition of the pharmacological response
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