7,271 research outputs found

    Critical vortex line length near a zigzag of pinning centers

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    A vortex line passes through as many pinning centers as possible on its way from one extremety of the superconductor to the other at the expense of increasing its self-energy. In the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau theory we study the relative growth in length, with respect to the straight line, of a vortex near a zigzag of defects. The defects are insulating pinning spheres that form a three-dimensional cubic array embedded in the superconductor. We determine the depinning transition beyond which the vortex line no longer follows the critical zigzag path of defects.Comment: 8 pages, 25 figures with low resolution option, 1 table. To be published in Eur. Phys. Jour.

    On Exact and Approximate Solutions for Hard Problems: An Alternative Look

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    We discuss in an informal, general audience style the da Costa-Doria conjecture about the independence of the P = NP hypothesis and try to briefly assess its impact on practical situations in economics. The paper concludes with a discussion of the Coppe-Cosenza procedure, which is an approximate, partly heuristic algorithm for allocation problems.P vs. NP , allocation problem, assignment problem, traveling salesman, exact solution for NP problems, approximate solutions for NP problems, undecidability, incompleteness

    Topologically stable gapped state in a layered superconductor

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    We show that a layered superconductor, described by a two-component order parameter, has a gapped state above the ground state, topologically protected from decay, containing flow and counter flow in the absence of an applied magnetic field. This state is made of skyrmions, breaks time reversal symmetry and produces a weak local magnetic field below the present threshold of detection by μ\muSR and NMR/NQR. We estimate the density of carriers that condense into the pseudogap.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Is the pseudogap a topological state?

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    We conjecture that the pseudogap is an inhomogeneous condensate above the homogeneous state whose existence is granted by topological stability. We consider the simplest possible order parameter theory that provides this interpretation of the pseudogap and study its angular momentum states. The normal state gap density, the breaking of the time reversal symmetry and the checkerboard pattern are naturally explained under this view. The pseudogap is a lattice of skyrmions and the inner weak local magnetic field falls below the experimental threshold of observation given by NMR/NQR and μ\muSR experiments.Comment: 12 pages, six figures, one tabl
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