347 research outputs found

    Robust vetoes for gravitational-wave burst triggers using known instrumental couplings

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    The search for signatures of transient, unmodelled gravitational-wave (GW) bursts in the data of ground-based interferometric detectors typically uses `excess-power' search methods. One of the most challenging problems in the burst-data-analysis is to distinguish between actual GW bursts and spurious noise transients that trigger the detection algorithms. In this paper, we present a unique and robust strategy to `veto' the instrumental glitches. This method makes use of the phenomenological understanding of the coupling of different detector sub-systems to the main detector output. The main idea behind this method is that the noise at the detector output (channel H) can be projected into two orthogonal directions in the Fourier space -- along, and orthogonal to, the direction in which the noise in an instrumental channel X would couple into H. If a noise transient in the detector output originates from channel X, it leaves the statistics of the noise-component of H orthogonal to X unchanged, which can be verified by a statistical hypothesis testing. This strategy is demonstrated by doing software injections in simulated Gaussian noise. We also formulate a less-rigorous, but computationally inexpensive alternative to the above method. Here, the parameters of the triggers in channel X are compared to the parameters of the triggers in channel H to see whether a trigger in channel H can be `explained' by a trigger in channel X and the measured transfer function.Comment: 14 Pages, 8 Figures, To appear in Class. Quantum Gra

    Searching for prompt signatures of nearby core-collapse supernovae by a joint analysis of neutrino and gravitational-wave data

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    We discuss the science motivations and prospects for a joint analysis of gravitational-wave (GW) and low-energy neutrino data to search for prompt signals from nearby supernovae (SNe). Both gravitational-wave and low-energy neutrinos are expected to be produced in the innermost region of a core-collapse supernova, and a search for coincident signals would probe the processes which power a supernova explosion. It is estimated that the current generation of neutrino and gravitational-wave detectors would be sensitive to Galactic core-collapse supernovae, and would also be able to detect electromagnetically dark SNe. A joint GW-neutrino search would enable improvements to searches by way of lower detection thresholds, larger distance range, better live-time coverage by a network of GW and neutrino detectors, and increased significance of candidate detections. A close collaboration between the GW and neutrino communities for such a search will thus go far toward realizing a much sought-after astrophysics goal of detecting the next nearby supernova.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures. To appear in Class. Quantum Gra

    The Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

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    Borexino, a large volume detector for low energy neutrino spectroscopy, is currently running underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The main goal of the experiment is the real-time measurement of sub MeV solar neutrinos, and particularly of the mono energetic (862 keV) Be7 electron capture neutrinos, via neutrino-electron scattering in an ultra-pure liquid scintillator. This paper is mostly devoted to the description of the detector structure, the photomultipliers, the electronics, and the trigger and calibration systems. The real performance of the detector, which always meets, and sometimes exceeds, design expectations, is also shown. Some important aspects of the Borexino project, i.e. the fluid handling plants, the purification techniques and the filling procedures, are not covered in this paper and are, or will be, published elsewhere (see Introduction and Bibliography).Comment: 37 pages, 43 figures, to be submitted to NI

    The LSC Glitch Group : Monitoring Noise Transients during the fifth LIGO Science Run

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    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) glitch group is part of the LIGO detector characterization effort. It consists of data analysts and detector experts who, during and after science runs, collaborate for a better understanding of noise transients in the detectors. Goals of the glitch group during the fifth LIGO science run (S5) included (1) offline assessment of the detector data quality, with focus on noise transients, (2) veto recommendations for astrophysical analysis and (3) feedback to the commissioning team on anomalies seen in gravitational wave and auxiliary data channels. Other activities included the study of auto-correlation of triggers from burst searches, stationarity of the detector noise and veto studies. The group identified causes for several noise transients that triggered false alarms in the gravitational wave searches; the times of such transients were identified and vetoed from the data generating the LSC astrophysical results.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figures, Contribution to 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop. Changes in response to referee comments. Accepted for publication in CQ

    New results on solar neutrino fluxes from 192 days of Borexino data

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    We report the direct measurement of the ^7Be solar neutrino signal rate performed with the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The interaction rate of the 0.862 MeV ^7Be neutrinos is 49+-3(stat)+-4(syst) counts/(day * 100ton). The hypothesis of no oscillation for ^7Be solar neutrinos is inconsistent with our measurement at the 4sigma level. Our result is the first direct measurement of the survival probability for solar nu_e in the transition region between matter-enhanced and vacuum-driven oscillations. The measurement improves the experimental determination of the flux of ^7Be, pp, and CNO solar nu_e, and the limit on the magnetic moment of neutrinos

    Final results of magnetic monopole searches with the MACRO experiment

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    We present the final results obtained by the MACRO experiment in the search for GUT magnetic monopoles in the penetrating cosmic radiation, for the range 4√ó10‚ąí5<ő≤<14\times 10^{-5}< \beta < 1. Several searches with all the MACRO sub-detectors (i.e. scintillation counters, limited streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors) were performed, both in stand alone and combined ways. No candidates were detected and a 90% Confidence Level (C.L.) upper limit to the local magnetic monopole flux was set at the level of 1.4√ó10‚ąí161.4\times 10^{-16} cm‚ąí2^{-2} s‚ąí1^{-1} sr‚ąí1^{-1}. This result is the first experimental limit obtained in direct searches which is well below the Parker bound in the whole ő≤\beta range in which GUT magnetic monopoles are expected.Comment: 12 pages, Latex, 9 figures and 2 Table

    The primary cosmic ray composition between 10**15 and 10**16 eV from Extensive Air Showers electromagnetic and TeV muon data

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    The cosmic ray primary composition in the energy range between 10**15 and 10**16 eV, i.e., around the "knee" of the primary spectrum, has been studied through the combined measurements of the EAS-TOP air shower array (2005 m a.s.l., 10**5 m**2 collecting area) and the MACRO underground detector (963 m a.s.l., 3100 m w.e. of minimum rock overburden, 920 m**2 effective area) at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories. The used observables are the air shower size (Ne) measured by EAS-TOP and the muon number (Nmu) recorded by MACRO. The two detectors are separated on average by 1200 m of rock, and located at a respective zenith angle of about 30 degrees. The energy threshold at the surface for muons reaching the MACRO depth is approximately 1.3 TeV. Such muons are produced in the early stages of the shower development and in a kinematic region quite different from the one relevant for the usual Nmu-Ne studies. The measurement leads to a primary composition becoming heavier at the knee of the primary spectrum, the knee itself resulting from the steepening of the spectrum of a primary light component (p, He). The result confirms the ones reported from the observation of the low energy muons at the surface (typically in the GeV energy range), showing that the conclusions do not depend on the production region kinematics. Thus, the hadronic interaction model used (CORSIKA/QGSJET) provides consistent composition results from data related to secondaries produced in a rapidity region exceeding the central one. Such an evolution of the composition in the knee region supports the "standard" galactic acceleration/propagation models that imply rigidity dependent breaks of the different components, and therefore breaks occurring at lower energies in the spectra of the light nuclei.Comment: Submitted to Astroparticle Physic

    The Observation of Up-going Charged Particles Produced by High Energy Muons in Underground Detectors

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    An experimental study of the production of up-going charged particles in inelastic interactions of down-going underground muons is reported, using data obtained from the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. In a sample of 12.2 10^6 single muons, corresponding to a detector livetime of 1.55 y, 243 events are observed having an up-going particle associated with a down-going muon. These events are analysed to determine the range and emission angle distributions of the up-going particle, corrected for detection and reconstruction efficiency. Measurements of the muon neutrino flux by underground detectors are often based on the observation of through-going and stopping muons produced in őĹőľ\nu_\mu interactions in the rock below the detector. Up-going particles produced by an undetected down-going muon are a potential background source in these measurements. The implications of this background for neutrino studies using MACRO are discussed.Comment: 18 pages, 9 figures. Accepted by Astrop. Physic

    Matter Effects in Upward-Going Muons and Sterile Neutrino Oscillations

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    The angular distribution of upward-going muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos in the rock below the MACRO detector show anomalies in good agreement with two flavor neutrino-mu ==> neutrino-tau oscillations with maximum mixing and Delta m**2 around 0.0024 eV**2. Exploiting the dependence of magnitude of the matter effect on oscillation channel, and using a set of 809 upward-going muons observed in MACRO, we show that the two flavor neutrino-mu ==> neutrino-sterile oscillation is disfavored with 99% C.L. with respect to neutrino-mu ==> neutrino-tau.Comment: 7 pages 4 figures Submitted to Physics Letters
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