7,542 research outputs found

    Trigger strategies for SUSY searches at the LHC

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    Supersymmetry will be searched for in a variety of final states at the LHC. It is crucial that a robust, efficient and unbiased trigger selection for SUSY is implemented from the very early days of data taking. After a brief description of the ATLAS and the CMS trigger systems, and a more in-depth discussion of the ATLAS High-Level Trigger, a triggering strategy is outlined for early SUSY searches at the LHC.Comment: Submitted for the SUSY07 Proceedings, 4 pages, 3 eps figures, LaTe

    The puzzling symbiotic X-ray system 4U1700+24

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    Symbiotic X-ray binaries form a subclass of low-mass X-ray binary systems consisting of a neutron star accreting material from a red giant donor star via stellar wind or Roche lobe overflow. Only a few confirmed members are currently known; 4U 1700+24 is a good candidate as it is a relatively bright X-ray object, possibly associated with the late-type star V934 Her. We analysed the archive {\it XMM}-Newton and Swift/XRT observations of 4U 1700+24 in order to have a uniform high-energy (0.3−100.3-10 keV) view of the source. We confirmed the existence of a red-shifted O VIII Ly-α\alpha transition (already observed in the 2002 {\it XMM}-Newton data) in the high-resolution spectra collected via the RGS instruments. The red-shift of the line is found in all the analysed observations and, on average, it was estimated to be ≃0.009\simeq 0.009. We also observed a modulation of the centroid energy of the line on short time scales (a few days) and discuss the observations in the framework of different scenarios. If the modulation is due to the gravitational red-shift of the neutron star, it might arise from a sudden re-organization of the emitting XX-ray matter on the scale of a few hundreds of km. Alternatively, we are witnessing a uni-polar jet of matter (with typical velocity of 1000−40001000-4000 km s−1^{-1}) possibly emitted by the neutron star in an almost face-on system. The second possibility seems to be required by the apparent lack of any modulation in the observed XX-ray light curve. We also note also that the low-resolution spectra (both {\it XMM}-Newton and Swift/XRT in the 0.3−100.3-10 keV band) show the existence of a black body radiation emitted by a region (possibly associated with the neutron star polar cap) with typical size from a few tens to hundreds of meters. The size of this spot-like region reduces as the overall luminosity of 4U 1700+24 decreases.Comment: In press on A&

    Productivity and modifications of ecosystem processes in gaps of a low Macchia in southern Italy

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    Disturbance in Mediterranean shrub lands creates gaps that break up the shrub cover and potentially restrict productivity and other ecosystem processes. Gaps make up to about 20% of the low Macchia area at the Castel Volturno nature reserve (southern Italy). The plant community consists mainly of small annual species (legumes, grasses and forbs) that germinate in November and die out before the onset of summer drought. The inter-annual variability in productivity and the relative abundance of legumes, grasses and forbs were assessed over 4 yr (2004–2007) to evaluate main potential modifications of ecosystem processes determined by the occurrence of gaps in the shrub cover. <br><br> In the study years, at the peak production, plant mass varied from about 250 to 700 g m<sup>−2</sup>; biomass belowground allocation varied from 23% in the wettest to 44% in the driest year. Belowground/aboveground biomass ratios were negatively related to rainfall and positively related to the length of the dry period, showing that water availability controls biomass allocation patterns. Legumes were the most abundant fraction (about 60%) of the aboveground mass in the wettest year. In the drier years legumes exhibited a shorter life cycle and senesced by mid-spring. Among the three functional groups monitored, legumes were the most sensitive to water shortage and their biomass was positively related to the amount of rainfall and negatively related to the length of the dry period. The higher fraction of legume mass was associated with higher nitrogen content in plant tissues and in the soil. Senesced annual species decomposed more than senescent <i>Phillyrea</i> sp. leaves. The stability of organic carbon pool, evaluated through the endogenous mineralization coefficient (CEM), was lower in gaps than in understorey soils

    The puzzling source IGR J17361-4441 in NGC 6388: a possible planetary tidal disruption event

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    On 2011 August 11, INTEGRAL discovered the hard X-ray source IGR J17361-4441 near the centre of the globular cluster NGC 6388. Follow up observations with Chandra showed the position of the transient was inconsistent with the cluster dynamical centre, and thus not related to its possible intermediate mass black hole. The source showed a peculiar hard spectrum (Gamma \approx 0.8) and no evidence of QPOs, pulsations, type-I bursts, or radio emission. Based on its peak luminosity, IGR J17361-4441 was classified as a very faint X-ray transient, and most likely a low-mass X-ray binary. We re-analysed 200 days of Swift/XRT observations, covering the whole outburst of IGR J17361-4441 and find a t^{-5/3} trend evident in the light curve, and a thermal emission component that does not evolve significantly with time. We investigate whether this source could be a tidal disruption event, and for certain assumptions find an accretion efficiency epsilon \approx 3.5E-04 (M_{Ch}/M) consistent with a massive white dwarf, and a disrupted minor body mass M_{mb}=1.9E+27(M/M_{Ch}) g in the terrestrial-icy planet regime. These numbers yield an inner disc temperature of the order kT_{in} \approx 0.04 keV, consistent with the blackbody temperature of kT_{in} \approx 0.08 keV estimated by spectral fitting. Although the density of white dwarfs and the number of free-floating planets are uncertain, we estimate the rate of planetary tidal disruptions in NGC 6388 to be in the range 3E-06 to 3E-04 yr^{-1}. Averaged over the Milky Way globular clusters, the upper limit value corresponds to 0.05 yr^{-1}, consistent with the observation of a single event by INTEGRAL and Swift.Comment: Accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Main Journal on 2014 July 16; 9 pages, 5 figures. Added references; corrected typo

    Decomposizione della lettiera di quattro specie della macchia mediterranea: relazioni con alcune caratteristiche fogliarie con la qualità della lettiera

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    La velocità di decomposizione della lettiera di quattro specie tipiche della Macchia Mediterranea, Q. ilex, P. angustifolia, P. lentiscus e Cistus sp., è stata misurata dopo circa tre, sei e tredici mesi di incubazione in situ nella Riserva Naturale di Castel Volturno (Caserta). Sono state valutate le relazioni tra velocità di decomposizione e 1) indice di area fogliare specifica (SLA), 2) densità dei tessuti fogliari (LDMC), 3) grado di sclerofillia (GS), 4) contenuto in N, C e lignina e rapporto C/N della lettiera. Queste caratteristiche possono influenzare la colonizzazione e la utilizzazione della lettiera da parte dei microrganismi e, di conseguenza, la sua resistenza alla decomposizione. Dopo poco più di un anno la perdita di peso della lettiera era circa 50% in cisto, 41% in fillirea e 32% in leccio e lentisco. Nei primi tre mesi di incubazione, la velocità di decomposizione della lettiera è tanto maggiore quanto più alto è il valore di SLA e diminuisce con l’aumento del valore di LDMC e GS. La correlazione decomposizione - SLA e decomposizione - GS è statisticamente significativa solo se si esclude la fillirea che, ha caratteristiche fogliari simili a quelle di leccio e lentisco (spiccata sclerofillia) ma contenuto di lignina più basso non solo rispetto alle altre due specie sclerofille, ma anche rispetto al cisto (che ha caratteristiche mesofile). La velocità di decomposizione è correlata negativamente al contenuto di lignina e al rapporto lignina/N quando vengono considerate le quattro specie; se si considerano solo fillirea e cisto la correlazione diventa positiva. I risultati mostrano che la decomposizione della lettiera è la risultante degli effetti congiunti delle caratteristiche fogliari e della composizione chimica della lettiera

    Influence of milk type and addition of passion fruit peel powder on fermentation kinetics, texture profile and bacterial viability in probiotic yoghurts

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    AbstractThe effect of the addition of passion fruit peel powder (PFPP) on the fermentation kinetics and texture parameters, post-acidification and bacteria counts of probiotic yoghurts made with two milk types were evaluated during 28 days of storage at 4 °C. Milks were fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (CY340), and one strain of probiotic bacteria: Lactobacillus acidophilus (L10 and NCFM), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bl04 and HN019). The addition of PFPP reduced significantly fermentation time of skim milk co-fermented by the strains L10, NCFM and HN019. At the end of 28-day shelf-life, counts of B. lactis Bl04 were about 1 Log CFU mL–1 higher in whole yoghurt fermented with PFPP regarding its control but, in general, the addition of PFPP had less influence on counts than the milk type itself. The titratable acidity in yoghurts with PFPP was significantly higher than in their respective controls, and in skim yoghurts higher than in the whole ones. The PFPP increased firmness, consistency (except for the NCFM strain of L. acidophilus) and cohesiveness of all skim yoghurts. The results point out the suitability of using passion fruit by-product in the formulation of both skim and whole probiotic yoghurts
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