7,660 research outputs found

    Restoring Time Dependence into Quantum Cosmology

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    Mini superspace cosmology treats the scale factor a(t)a(t), the lapse function n(t)n(t), and an optional dilation field ϕ(t)\phi(t) as canonical variables. While pre-fixing n(t)n(t) means losing the Hamiltonian constraint, pre-fixing a(t)a(t) is serendipitously harmless at this level. This suggests an alternative to the Hartle-Hawking approach, where the pre-fixed a(t)a(t) and its derivatives are treated as explicit functions of time, leaving n(t)n(t) and a now mandatory ϕ(t)\phi(t) to serve as canonical variables. The naive gauge pre-fix a(t)=consta(t)=const is clearly forbidden, causing evolution to freeze altogether, so pre-fixing the scale factor, say a(t)=ta(t)=t, necessarily introduces explicit time dependence into the Lagrangian. Invoking Dirac's prescription for dealing with constraints, we construct the corresponding mini superspace time dependent total Hamiltonian, and calculate the Dirac brackets, characterized by {n,ϕ}D0\{n,\phi\}_D\neq 0, which are promoted to commutation relations in the quantum theory.Comment: Honorable Mentioned essay - Gravity Research Foundation 201

    A Toy Model for Open Inflation

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    The open inflation scenario based on the theory of bubble formation in the models of a single scalar field suffered from a fatal defect. In all the versions of this scenario known so far, the Coleman-De Luccia instantons describing the creation of an open universe did not exist. We propose a simple one-field model where the CDL instanton does exist and the open inflation scenario can be realized.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures, revtex, a discussion of density perturbations is extende

    False Vacuum Chaotic Inflation: The New Paradigm?

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    Recent work is reported on inflation model building in the context of supergravity and superstrings, with special emphasis on False Vacuum (`Hybrid') Chaotic Inflation. Globally supersymmetric models do not survive in generic supergravity theories, but fairly simple conditions can be formulated which do ensure successful supergravity inflation. The conditions are met in some of the versions of supergravity that emerge from superstrings.Comment: 4 pages, LATEX, LANCASTER-TH 94-1

    Unambiguous probabilities in an eternally inflating universe

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    ``Constants of Nature'' and cosmological parameters may in fact be variables related to some slowly-varying fields. In models of eternal inflation, such fields will take different values in different parts of the universe. Here I show how one can assign probabilities to values of the ``constants'' measured by a typical observer. This method does not suffer from ambiguities previously discussed in the literature.Comment: 7 pages, Final version (minor changes), to appear in Phys. Rev. Let

    Realizations of Hybrid Inflation in Supergravity with natural initial conditions

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    We present viable F-term realizations of the hybrid inflationary scenario in the context of supergravity addressing at the same time the well-known problems of the initial conditions and of the adequate suppression of the inflaton mass. An essential role in our construction is played by "decoupled" superheavy fields without superpotential acquiring large vevs due to D-terms associated with "anomalous" U(1) gauge symmetries. The naturalness of the initial conditions is achieved through a "chaotic" inflation starting at energies close to the Planck scale and driven by the "anomalous" D-terms. We discuss two distinct mechanisms leading to such an early "chaotic" D-term inflation which depend on the choice of the K\"ahler potential involving the superheavy fields. The one relies on a choice of the K\"ahler potential of the SU(1,1)/U(1)SU(1,1)/U(1) K\"ahler manifold of the type encountered in no-scale supergravity whereas the other employs a more "conventional" choice for the K\"ahler potential of the SU(1,1)/U(1)SU(1,1)/U(1) or SU(2)/U(1)SU(2)/U(1) K\"ahler manifold but invokes rather specific valuesof the Fayet-Iliopoulos ξ\xi term.Comment: 32 pages LATEX, no figure

    Predictability crisis in inflationary cosmology and its resolution

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    Models of inflationary cosmology can lead to variation of observable parameters ("constants of Nature") on extremely large scales. The question of making probabilistic predictions for today's observables in such models has been investigated in the literature. Because of the infinite thermalized volume resulting from eternal inflation, it has proven difficult to obtain a meaningful and unambiguous probability distribution for observables, in particular due to the gauge dependence. In the present paper, we further develop the gauge-invariant procedure proposed in a previous work for models with a continuous variation of "constants". The recipe uses an unbiased selection of a connected piece of the thermalized volume as sample for the probability distribution. To implement the procedure numerically, we develop two methods applicable to a reasonably wide class of models: one based on the Fokker-Planck equation of stochastic inflation, and the other based on direct simulation of inflationary spacetime. We present and compare results obtained using these methods.Comment: 23 pages, 13 figure

    Hunting Down the Best Model of Inflation with Bayesian Evidence

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    We present the first calculation of the Bayesian evidence for different prototypical single field inflationary scenarios, including representative classes of small field and large field models. This approach allows us to compare inflationary models in a well-defined statistical way and to determine the current "best model of inflation". The calculation is performed numerically by interfacing the inflationary code FieldInf with MultiNest. We find that small field models are currently preferred, while large field models having a self-interacting potential of power p>4 are strongly disfavoured. The class of small field models as a whole has posterior odds of approximately 3:1 when compared with the large field class. The methodology and results presented in this article are an additional step toward the construction of a full numerical pipeline to constrain the physics of the early Universe with astrophysical observations. More accurate data (such as the Planck data) and the techniques introduced here should allow us to identify conclusively the best inflationary model.Comment: 12 pages, 2 figures, uses RevTeX. Misprint corrected, references added. Matches published versio

    Towards a gauge invariant volume-weighted probability measure for eternal inflation

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    An improved volume-weighted probability measure for eternal inflation is proposed. For the models studied in this paper it leads to simple and intuitively expected gauge-invariant results.Comment: 16 pages, 3 figs, few misprints corrected, comments adde

    Pre-Big-Bang Requires the Universe to be Exponentially Large From the Very Beginning

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    We show that in a generic case of the pre-big-bang scenario, inflation will solve cosmological problems only if the universe at the onset of inflation is extremely large and homogeneous from the very beginning. The size of a homogeneous part of the universe at the beginning of the stage of pre-big-bang (PBB) inflation must be greater than 101910^{19} lsl_s, where lsl_s is the stringy length. The total mass of an inflationary domain must be greater than 1072Ms10^{72} M_{s}, where Msls1M_{s} \sim l_s^{-1}. If the universe is initially radiation dominated, then its total entropy at that time must be greater than 106810^{68}. If the universe is closed, then at the moment of its formation it must be uniform over 102410^{24} causally disconnected domains. The natural duration of the PBB stage in this scenario is Mp1M_p^{-1}. We argue that the initial state of the open PBB universe could not be homogeneous because of quantum fluctuations. Independently of the issue of homogeneity, one must introduce two large dimensionless parameters, g02>1053g_0^{-2} > 10^{53}, and B>1091B > 10^{91}, in order to solve the flatness problem in the PBB cosmology. A regime of eternal inflation does not occur in the PBB scenario. This should be compared with the simplest versions of the chaotic inflation scenario, where the regime of eternal inflation may begin in a universe of size O(Mp1)O(M_{p}^{-1}) with vanishing initial radiation entropy, mass O(Mp)O(M_p), and geometric entropy O(1). We conclude that the current version of the PBB scenario cannot replace usual inflation even if one solves the graceful exit problem in this scenario.Comment: 14 pages, a discussion of the flatness problem in the PBB cosmology is adde

    Dynamical renormalization group methods in theory of eternal inflation

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    Dynamics of eternal inflation on the landscape admits description in terms of the Martin-Siggia-Rose (MSR) effective field theory that is in one-to-one correspondence with vacuum dynamics equations. On those sectors of the landscape, where transport properties of the probability measure for eternal inflation are important, renormalization group fixed points of the MSR effective action determine late time behavior of the probability measure. I argue that these RG fixed points may be relevant for the solution of the gauge invariance problem for eternal inflation.Comment: 11 pages; invited mini-review for Grav.Cos
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